Michel Rabinovitch, M.D.  Copyrat Rabinovitch

michel.rabinovitch3@gmail.com

 

THE REPUBLICS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (1900-2010)

PART III – SCIENTISTS AT THE SERVICE OF THE STATE IN

WARS, HUMAN EXPERIMENTATION, GENOCIDE AND POLITICAL REPRESSION. UNETHICAL HUMAN EXPERIMENTS IN A DEMOCRATIC COUNTRY.

 

Most of the books listed are in English, a few are in French or Portuguese; books in other languages were not traced.  Attempts were made to determine the background and affiliations of the authors. The majority of the books are unavailable to us.. Amazon through Google and Wikipedia were the main sources of the vignettes provided, many of them edited to remove encomiastic adjectives. We realize that editorial overviews and comments are generally intended to stimulate prospective buyers. When available, backgrounds and affiliations of the authors, and some likely independent book reviews are also provided.

 

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“It is impossible in the modern world for a man to say with any honesty ”My business is to provide knowledge and what use is made of the knowledge is not my responsibility”. The knowledge that a man of science provides may fall into the hands of men or institutions devoted to utterly unworthy objects."

[Bertrand Russell, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, June 1960]

 

“I solemnly pledge myself to consecrate my life to the service of humanity. I will give my teachers the respect and gratitude which is their due; I will be loyal to the profession of engineering and just and generous to its members. I will lead my life and practice my profession in uprightness and honor; whatever project I shall undertake, it shall l be for the good of mankind to the utmost of my power. I will keep far away from wrong, from corruption, and from tempting others to vicious practice; I will exercise my profession solely for the benefit of humanity and perform no act for a criminal purpose even if solicited, far less suggested it;I will speak out against eveil and unjust practice wheresoever I encounter it; I will not permit considerations of religion, nationality, race, party , politics or social standing to intervene between my duty and my work; even under threat. I will not use my professional knowledge contrary to the laws of humanity; I will endeavor to avoid waste and the consumption of non renewable resources. I make these promises solemnly, freely and upon my honor.”\

 

From the Engineer’s Oath at University of California, Berkeley by Charles Susskind

[1921-2004]   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h742wJaVNV8

 

 “... scientific research has created new and unexpected knowledge and technologies that offer unprecedented opportunities to improve human and animal health and environment conditions. But some science and technology can be used for destructive purposes as well as for constructive purposes. Scientists have a special responsibility when it comes to problems of ‘dual use’ and the misuse of science and technology”

(IAP, 20050.  Revill, J., Dando, M.R. A Hippocratic Oath for life scientists. EMBO Repts 7, Special Issue, S55-S60, 2006).

 

"Once the rockets are up, who cares where they come down?
That's not my department," says Wernher von Braun. (Tom Lehrer Lyric)

 



INDEX OF FIRST NAMES, YEAR oft publication

 

GENERAL

 

Altman, Lawrence A. 1998.

Badash, Lawrence 1995

Charles, Daniel, 2005.

Cole, Leonard A., 1996

Ehrlich, Paul 1984

Glover, Jonathan, 1999.

Goliszek, Andrew 2003

Handelman, Stephen, 1999.

Harris, Robert, 2002.

Harris, Sam, 2004.

Kevles Daniel  J. 1995.

Leslie, Stuart W. 1993

Lowen, Rebecca S 1997

Mukerji, Chandra, 1990

Reiss, Edward, 1992.

Shrader-Frechette, Kristin S., 1994

Westwick, Peter J, 2003

 

JAPANESE ATTROCITIES

 

Barenblatt, Daniel, 2005

Gold, Hal, 1996

Harris, Sheldon H., 2002.

Nie, Jing Bao, 2010.

 

NAZI ATTROCITIES

 

Alexander, Leo, 1946, 1996, 2007.

Aly, Gotz, 1994.

Browning, Christopher R., 1992

Bryant, Michael S., 2005.

Burleigh, Michael, 1991, 1993

Caplan, Arthur L., 1992

Deichmann, Ute, 1996

Friedlander, Henry, 1995.

Gallagher, Hugh Gregory 1995

Goldhagen, D. J. 1996.

Hoess, Rudolf 1992, 1996

Kater, Michael, 2000

Lifton, Robert Jay, 2000

Müller-Hill, Beno, 1998

Posner, Gerald, 2000.

Proctor, Robert Neel 1988

Rose, Paul Lawrence, 1998

Spitz, Vivien, 2000.

Welsome, Eileen, 1999.

 

 

 

 

 

 

MANNHATTAN PROJECT; H2 BOMB

 

Bush, Vannevar, 1949.

Connelly, John, 2005.

Eckart, Wolfgang 2006.

Goliszek, Andrew, 2003.

Groves, Leslie R., 1962

Herken, Gregg. 2002;

Hershberg, James, 1993.

Lanouette, William, 1992

Schweber, Silvan S., 2000

Seidel, Robert, W. 1995

Udall, Stewart L 1994

Weart, Spencer, 1978

Wittner, Lawrence S., 2003, 2009

 

SOVIET REPRESSION & ATROCITIES.

 

Augustine, Dolores, L. 2007.

Graham, Loren, 1998.

Joravsky, David, 1961, 1970, 1986

Medvedev, Zhores, 1969

Pringle, Peter, 2008

Scott-Smith, Giles, 2002

Soyfer, Valery N., 1994.

Stephens, Martha, 2002

 

APARTHEID IN SOUTH AFRICA

Saunders, Mark, 2002

 

UNETHICAL EXPERIMENTS, USA

 

Gillmor, D. 1987.

Hornblum, Allen, 1998.

Jones, James, H. 1981

Lederer, Susan, 1995

Marks, John D. 1991

Moreno, Jonathan D., 1999

Reverby, Susan M. 2000

Revill J , 2006

Roll-Hansen, Nils, 2004

Wang, Jessica, 1999

Washington, Harriet A., 2008

 

 

 

Authors, book tittles and additional information are listed by year of publication and, within each year, in alphabetical order.

GENERAL

 

EHRLICH, Paul. et al. 1984. THE COLD AND THE DARK: The World after Nuclear War. New York: W.W. Norton and Co,  

 

 

MUKERJI, Chandra. 1990. A FRAGILE POWER: Scientists and the State. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Description. When the National Science Foundation funds research about the earth's crust and the Department of Energy supports studies on the disposal of nuclear wastes, what do they expect for their money? Most scientists believe that in such cases the government wants information for immediate use or directions for seeking future benefits from nature. Challenging this oversimplified view, Chandra Mukerji depicts a more complex interdependence between science and the state. She uses vivid examples from the heavily funded field of oceanography, particularly from recent work on seafloor hot springs and on ocean disposal of nuclear wastes, to raise questions about science as it is practiced and financed today. She finds that scientists act less as purveyors of knowledge to the government than as an elite and highly skilled talent pool retained to give legitimacy to U.S. policies and programs: scientists allow their authority to be projected onto government officials who use scientific ideas for political purposes. Mukerji reveals the peculiar mix of autonomy and dependency defined for researchers after World War II--a mix that has changed since then but that continues to shape the practical conduct of science. Scientists use their control over the scientific content of research to convince themselves of their autonomy and to achieve some power in their dealings with funding agencies, but they remain fundamentally dependent on the state. Mukerji argues that they constitute a kind of reserve force, like the Army or Navy reserves, paid by the government to do research only because science is politically essential to the workings of the modern state. This book is essential reading not only for sociologists and students of science and society, and for oceanographers, but also for every scientist whose work depends directly or indirectly on government support.

REISS, Edward. 1992. THE STRATEGIC DEFENSE INITIATIVE. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

LESLIE, Stuart W. 1993. THE COLD WAR AND AMERICAN SCIENCE: The Military-Industrial-Academic Complex at MIT and Stanford. 332 pp. New York: Columbian University Press. 

Review. An  eye-opener. During the Second World War, American universities won R&D contracts far bigger than those awarded to industrial giants. . . . Leslie shows how these seductive handouts finally compromised intellectual freedom and crumbled the American economy, causing campus riots on the way. New Scientist

Description. Focusing on MIT and Stanford, Leslie offers a critical look at American science in the makin. He reveals a regrettable series of misplaced priorities and missed opportunities that have characterized the recent history of science and technology in this country.

Summary of review by Eliot A. Cohen, in Foreign Affairs, nov dec 1994. Leslie makes a powerful case for his central thesis -- that defense spending affected the development of postwar American academic science -- by examining the cases of MIT and Stanford. What does not follow is his conclusion (and his entering assumption) that this was a reprehensible thing. Indeed, at the very end he creditably concedes that "no one can assert with any confidence exactly where a science and engineering driven by other assumptions and priorities would have taken us." Cross-national comparisons with other countries might help answer this question, but that is beyond the purview of this book. Leslie thoroughly documents the ways in which the Cold War shaped this crucial segment of American life; one suspects that this monograph will prove an important building block for a larger synthesis of the subject

 

SHRADER-FRECHETTE, Kristin S. 1994. ETHICS OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, 243 pp Lanham, MD: Roman and Littlefield Publishers. Shrader-Frechette is Distinguished Research Professor of Philosophy and of Environmental Sciences and Policy at the University of South Florida. She holds degrees in mathematics, physics, and philosophy. Description. Challenging long-held theories of scientific rationality and remoteness, Kristin Shrader-Frechette argues that research cannot be "value free." Rather, any research will raise important moral issues for those involved, issues not only of truthfulness but of risk to research subjects, third parties, and the general public.

BADASH, Lawrence. 1995. SCIENTISTS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS: From Fission to the limited Test Ban Treaty.  New Jersey, Atlantic Highlands. Humana Press.

KEVLES, Daniel J. 1995. THE PHYSICISTS: The History of a Scientific Community in Modern Day America. New York: Knopf

COLE, Leonard A. (1933- ). 1996. THE ELEVENTH PLAGE: The Politics of Biological and Chemical Warfare. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company. Paper, 284 pp. Cole is a professor of political science at Rutger’s University.

From Publishers Weekly. At a time when the reach of terrorism threatens more countries than ever, this analysis of the debate on the future of chemical and biological weapons delivers a strong wake-up call. Cole (Elements of Risk, etc.), begins by surveying the U.S. Army's testing of these weapons in the 1950s and '60s on unsuspecting civilian populations, including aerial spraying over cities such as Minneapolis and St. Louis. He then covers issues relating to the Middle East, especially the worldwide failure to condemn Iraq's use of chemical weapons during its long war with Iran, a failure, Cole avers, that encouraged Saddam Hussein to continue his aggressive moves. Finally, Cole looks at what he calls "new challenges," such as the 1995 sarin gas attack in Tokyo, the problems inherent in verifying compliance with various treaties and the erosion of moral outrage over continued development of these weapons. He also examines the problem of how to defend against chemical and biological weapons, citing Israel's fears during the Iraqi attacks in 1991 and exploring what he sees as America's unpreparedness for attacks by these weapons. Cole ultimately finds that "the compromise of moral principles has led to a greater insecurity" a message that may be painful to hear, but that, thanks to his closely reasoned and ethically astute work, has now been stated loud and clear. Author tour. Copyright 1996 Reed Business Information, Inc.

 

LOWEN, Rebecca S.  1997. CREATING THE COLD WAR UNIVERSITY: The Transformation of Stanford. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Description. The "cold war university" is the academic component of the military-industrial-academic complex, and its archetype, according to Lowen, is Stanford University. Her book challenges the conventional wisdom that the post-World War II "multiversity" was created by military patrons on the one hand and academic scientists on the other and points instead to the crucial role played by university administrators in making their universities dependent upon military, foundation, and industrial patronage.
Contesting the view that the "federal grant university" originated with the outpouring of federal support for science after the war, she shows how the Depression had put financial pressure on universities and pushed administrators to seek new modes of funding. She also details the ways that Stanford administrators transformed their institution to attract patronage.
With the end of the cold war and the tightening of federal budgets, universities again face pressures not unlike those of the 1930s. Lowen's analysis of how the university became dependent on the State is essential reading for anyone concerned about the future of higher education in the post-cold war era

Review by Bruce Edsalt Seely in Technology and Culture, 40 (1) jan 1999

http://muse.jhu.edu/login?uri=/journals/technology_and_culture/v040/40.1br_lowen.html

 

 

ALTMAN, Lawrence A. 1998. WHO GOES FIRST?: The Story of Self-Experimentation in Medicine (Paperback). University of California Press. The ethical implications of self-experimentation are not the focus of this fascinating book. Yet the subject arises frequently as Altman explores developments in a variety of medical disciplines such as cardiology, anesthesiology, pharmacology, and parasitology. Names long associated with autoexperimentation, such as Louis Pasteur and Walter Reed, lose some luster and other names gain recognition in this collection of biographical and clinical accounts. A popular medical writer, Dr. Altman blends an easy style with meticulous research. His use of primary source material, personal interviews, and retrospective literature is impressive. This book far surpasses J. Franklin and J. Sutherland's Guinea Pig Doctors ( LJ 3/1/84) and is highly recommended for academic, medical, and public libraries. Mary Hemmings, McGill Univ. Medical Lib., Montreal, Copyright 1987 Reed Business Information, Inc. 

GLOVER, Jonathan. 1999. HUMANITY: A Moral History of the Twentieth Century. New York: Yale University Press. Reviewed by Steven Pinker, in NY Times Book Review Oct 29, 2000 http://pinker.wjh.harvard.edu/articles/media/2000_10_29_nytbookreview.html  From Booklist. An ethics academic in Britain, Glover discourses on the dismantlement of absolute morality concepts synonymous with Friedrich Nietzsche, and explicitly put into effect by the twentieth century's terrible tyrants. To describe the release Lenin, Stalin, Hitler, and Pol Pot granted themselves from ordinary morality's prohibitions against killing, Glover quotes their ideological justifications of creating a perfect human society. Having opened this book with Nietzsche's pronouncements that man creates his morals, Glover's linking of mass murder with that philosopher is direct, and, if not an original way of comprehending the sufferings inflicted by dictators, it is worthwhile revisiting for those vexed by the apparent meaninglessness of enormous crimes. Indeed, Glover is a direct writer, not given to the opacity that clouds many a discussion of ethics. For instance, he narrates specific atrocities, and describes the psychological "traps" the triggermen find themselves in as their rationales for their actions. The "trap" metaphor extends in Glover's view to events such as World War I, and whatever dispute diplomatic historians will make with that, ethicists will find profit in Glover's not totally bleak survey. Gilbert Taylo.r Copyright © American Library Association.

HANDELMAN, Stephen, ALIBEK, Ken. 1999. BIOHAZARD: The Chilling True Story of the Largest Covert Biological Weapons Program in the World—Told from Inside by the Man Who Ran It, Random House,. ISBN 0-375-50231-9 ISBN 0-385-33496-6  From Amazon-UK  "As the top scientist in the Soviet Union's biowarfare program and the inventor of the world's most powerful anthrax, Dr. Ken Alibek has stunned the highest levels of the U. S. Government with his revelations. Now, in a calm, compelling, utterly convincing voice, he tells the world what he knows. Modern biology is producing weapons that in killing power may exceed the hydrogen bomb. Ken Alibek describes them with the intimate knowledge of a top weaponeer" - Richard Preston, author of "The Hot Zone".

 It is to be hoped that stronger evidence may follow a participant testimony.

HARRIS, Robert, PAXMAN, Jeremy. 2002. A HIGHER FORM OF KILLING: The Secret History of Chemical and Biological Warfare.

Amazon.com: Description: First published in 1982, this revised and updated edition takes into account the events that have happened since the early 1980s - including the break-up of the former Soviet Union and the black market that appeared in chemical and biological weapons, the acquisition of these weapons by Third World countries, etc.

  From Review: "The best account of gas and germ warfare available." -"The Washington Post"
"An absorbing and unsettling history, an exhaustive exploration of a little-known but potentially apocalyptic aspect of warfare, the whole thing carrying the punch of Armageddon. It reminds us that the world could end not with a nuclear bang but in whimpers of fevered agony.""Chicago Sun-Times"
"Compelling . . . The authors make clear why governments have shrouded such weapon programs in even more secrecy than their nuclear work.-"Financial Times"

 

WESWICK, PETER J. 2003. THE NATIONAL LABS: Science in an American System (1947-1974). Cambridge, Mass. Harvard University Press.

HARRIS, Sam. 2004. THE END OF FAITH: Religion, Terror, and the Future of Reason. New York:W. W. Norton and Co. Paperback.Harris, a philosopher from Stanford University, now studies the neural basis of belief, unbelief, disbelief and uncertainty. “He offers a vivid, historical tour of our willingness to suspend reason in favor of religious beliefs – even when these beliefs inspire the worst of human atrocities.  The first 10 pages can be found in Harris web site, http://www.samharris.org/site/full_text/chapter-one/. See also http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_End_of_Faith

From the Amazon.com Review: Sam Harris cranks out blunt, hard-hitting chapters to make his case for why faith itself is the most dangerous element of modern life. And if the devil's in the details, then you'll find Satan waiting at the back of the book in the very substantial notes section where Harris saves his more esoteric discussions to avoid sidetracking the urgency of his message.

 

CHARLES, Daniel. 2005. MASTER MIND: The Rise and Fall of Fritz Haber, the Nobel Laureate Who Launched the Age of Chemical Warfare. New York: Harper/Collins. Haber (1868-1934), Nobel Prize  1918., During the First World War Haber worked on chemical warfare agents; he and other future nobelists were present at the war fronts when chlorine and other gases were used. Rather ironically, he developed the Zyklon B later used in German extermination camps. In 1933, opposed to the Nazis racial laws, left the direction of the Berlin Kaiser Wilhelm Physical Chemistry Institute, and fled to England, and died soon after he joined the  Cambridge’ Cavendish Laboratory (Wikipedia has an excellent account of Haber’s life),

 

HUMAN EXPERIMENTATION: JAPANESE ATROCITIES IN CHINA 1932-1945.

Introduction: Dr. Shiro Ishii (from Wikipedia):

Early years: Ishii was born in the former Shibayama Village of Sanbu District in Chiba Prefecture, and studied medicine at Kyoto Imperial University; he excelled in his studies  and in 1922 was assigned to the 1st Army Hospital and Army Medical School in Tokyo. There his work impressed his superiors enough to gain him, two years later, post-graduate medical schooling back at the Kyoto Imperial University.

Beginning in 1928, Ishii took a two-year tour of the West. In his travels, he did extensive research on the effects of biological warfare and chemical warfare developments from World War I onwards. It was a highly successful mission and helped win him the patronage of Sadao Araki, Minister of the Army..Biological warfare project. In 1932, he began his preliminary experiments in biological warfare as a secret project for the Japanese military at Zhongma Fortress. In 1936, Unit 731 was formed. Ishii built a huge compound – more than 150 buildings over six square kilometers – outside the city of Harbin, China. The research was secret, and the cover story was that Unit 731 was engaged in water-purification work. The film Men Behind the Sun (Hong Kong, 1988, directed by Mou Tun Fei) includes a scene in which Ishii demonstrates to his fellow soldiers a machine he has invented to purify urine into drinking water.

From 1940, Ishii was appointed Chief of the Biological Warfare Section of the Kwantung Army, holding the post simultaneously with that of the Bacteriological Department of the Army Medical Academy.[1]

In 1942, Ishii began field tests of germ warfare agents developed, and various methods of dispersion (i.e. via firearms, bombs etc.) both on Chinese prisoners of war and operationally on battlefields and against civilians in Chinese cities. Some historians[estimate that tens of thousands died as a result of the bio-weapons (including bubonic plague, cholera, anthrax and others) deployed. His unit also conducted physiological experiments on human subjects, including vivisections, forced abortions, and simulated strokes, heart attacks, frostbite and hypothermia.

From 1942-1945, Ishii was Chief of the Medical Section of the Japanese First Army[1]

In 1945, in the final days of the Pacific War and in the face of imminent defeat, Japanese troops blew up the headquarters of Unit 731 in order to destroy evidence of the research done there. As part of the cover-up, Ishii ordered 150 remaining subjects killed. More than ten thousand people,[2] from which around 600 every year were provided by the kempeitai,[3] were subjects of the experimentation conducted by Unit 731. These were called by Ishii and his peers maruta (丸 太) "logs," a reference to their view of subjects being inert, expendable entities, or is possibly related to the cover story told to locals that the facility contained a sawmill.

Immunity. Arrested by the American occupation authorities at the end of World War II, Ishii and Unit 731 leaders received immunity in 1946 from war-crimes prosecution before the Tokyo tribunal in exchange for germ warfare data based on human experimentation. On 6 May 1947, Douglas MacArthur wrote to Washington that "additional data, possibly some statements from Ishii probably can be obtained by informing Japanese involved that information will be retained in intelligence channels and will not be employed as 'War Crimes' evidence."[4] The deal was concluded in 1948.[5]

Ishii was never prosecuted for any war crimes. According to Richard Drayton, a Cambridge University history lecturer, Ishii later moved to Maryland where he conducted research into bio-weapons.[5] But according to Ishii's daughter Harumi, he stayed in Japan,[6] where he died of throat cancer at the age of 67.[7]

One is reminded of Werner von Braun...

Wernher von Braun (1912-1977) was the leader of what has been called the "rocket team," which had developed the German V-2 ballistic missile in World War II. At the conclusion of the war, von Braun and some of his chief assistants - as part of a military operation called Project Paperclip - came to America and were installed at Fort Bliss in El Paso, Texas, to work on rocket development and use the V-2 for high altitude research. They used launch facilities at the nearby White Sands Proving Ground in New Mexico. Later, in 1950 von Braun's team moved to the Redstone Arsenal near Huntsville, Alabama, to concentrate on the development of a new missile for the Army. They built the Army's Jupiter ballistic missile, and before that the Redstone, used by NASA to launch the first Mercury capsules. The story of von Braun and the "rocket team" has been told many times. See, as examples, David H. DeVorkin, Science With a Vengeance: How the Military Created the US Space Sciences After World War II (New York: Springer-Verlag, 1992); Frederick I. Ordway III and Mitchell R. Sharpe, The Rocket Team (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1979); Erik Bergaust, Wernher von Braun (Washington, D.C.: National Space Institute, 1976).

see also: Tien-wei Wu  A Preliminary Review of Studies of Japanese Biological Warfare and Unit 731 in the United States http://www.centurychina.com/wiihist/germwar/731rev.htm

and: Wu Tianwei  The Failure of the Tokyo Trial http://www.centurychina.com/wiihist/japdeny/tokyo_trial.html

GOLD, Hal. 1996. Unit 731 - Testimony (Paperback);Yen Books. 256 pp. Over the fifty years since World War II, we have been made aware of atrocities committed during those years. We are most aware of Nazi Germany; less in the consciousness, but still a part of the common knowledge, is Stalin's treatment of Russians during and after the war. But the actions of the Japanese army in China during the thirties and forties-- and their ultimate consequences-- have gone largely unreported in the Western press. Americans were first made aware of the scope and depth of Japan's war crimes in the late 1980s by two investigative journalists, Williams and Wallace, in their book Unit 731: Japan's Secret Biological Warfare in World War II. Soon after, Godfrey Ho released the first of four exploitation films based on the activities of Unit 731, called Men Behind the Sun (a film partially subsidized by the Chinese government). Gradually, Americans became more aware of what happened (especially in the case of the Rape of Nanjing), but the numbers-- conservative estimates put the death toll in China between 1930 and 1945 at thirty million-- and the specific case of Unit 731 are still largely unknown to Americans.

Hal Gold fires another shot in the battle to set things right with his book Unit 731: Testimony. During 1993 and 1994, an exhibition based on the activities of Unit 731 toured Japan, and a handful of ex-Unit 731 personnel testified about their actions and the actions of others. It was the first time the Japanese government had allowed evidence that Unit 731 even existed to be publicized. Gold's book starts with a history of Unit 731, and then provides transcriptions of many of the testimonies given during the exhibition. Robert P. Beveridge

Some of these experiments included poisoning victims with deadly diseases, live vivisections, the harvesting of plague infected fleas (which in turn were dropped on entire Chinese villages), poisoning Chinese children by offering chocolate laced with anthrax, frostbite experiments, tying individuals up for bayonet practice, and the list goes on. Unit 731 Testimony offers background into the medical unit, and the brain behind it: Shiro Ishii. The book not only details the history behind the unit, but also the mentality that went along with it — the idea that Japanese duty was to adhere to the wish of the Emperor, of whom they believed to be a god. The second part of the book includes first-hand witnesses and testimony, and all events are relayed in a very deliberate, matter of fact tone, sans emotion. Even those doctors expressing remorse do so only later, and through their testimony, one can see how they had trained themselves to detach. One doctor even notes that the first time he heard screams in pain, he was bothered by it. But then the second time became easier. By the third time, he no longer noticed the screams. Probably the most disturbing of all, however, is that many of these scientists went unpunished for their crimes. Dr. Kitano Masaji, who was in charge of the frostbite experiments, later became head of the Japanese pharmaceutical company, the Green Cross. Japanese scientists were also not punished by the American government, despite having murdered American prisoners of war, in exchange for the information gained by their human experiments. Review: Jessica Schneider.  http://blogcritics.org/books/article/book-review-unit-731-testimony-by/

HARRIS, Sheldon H. 2002 FACTORIES OF DEATH: Japanese Biological Warfare, 1932-45 and the American Cover-Up (Paperback) Routledge, 2nd ed.

Edited from Publishers Weekly. Harris, professor emeritus of history at California State University, here presents evidence from Chinese, American and KGB archives that Japanese scientists used human beings, including Allied prisoners of war, in biologial warfare (BW) research during the Japanese occupation of Manchuria. The project was carried out in large part by the notorious Army Unit 731 under the direction of Major (later Lieutenant General) Ishii Shiro (1892-1959), who was a physician and medical microbiologist (see Wikipedia). Harris, who also maintains that American authorities made a postwar deal whereby Ishii and his staff disclosed their BW data in exchange for immunity from war-crimes prosecution, notes that U.S. intelligence agencies have only selectively released material pertaining to the Japanese BW program. The author inconclusively considers charges made during the 1950-53 Korean War that U.S. forces employed BW agents on the battlefield, possibly with the assistance of Japanese specialists. Scholars will appreciate Harris's assiduous research and analysis, but his dry presentation makes his book of doubtful interest to general readers.

 

HERKEN, Gregg. 2002. BROTHERHOOD OF THE BOMB: The Tangled Lives and Loyalties of Robert Oppenheimer, Ernest Lawrence, and Edward Teller. New York: Henry Holt and Co., 2002. ISBN 0-8050-6588-1

 

 

GOLISZEK, Andrew.  2003. IN THE SAME OF SCIENCE: A History of Secret Programs, Medical Research, and Human Experimentation. St. Martin´s Press. From Publishers Weekly

As Goliszek writes in this excellent book, people throughout history have used their fellow human beings for experimentation, most often in the name of military or financial domination. The author, a biology professor at North Carolina A & T State University, says unprecedented medical advances such as the Human Genome Project have put us on the brink of discoveries "that will make real the threat of population control, gene warfare, ethnic cleansing, or worse." The best way to ensure that the past is not repeated, Goliszek argues, is to document the truth about it in all its chilling detail, which he effectively accomplishes here. The book is a compendium of damning evidence that implicates first and foremost our own government, our doctors and corporations, and ultimately ourselves. The book features copious primary documentation, but it doesn't read like an evidentiary record. Goliszek is a riveting storyteller. He introduces readers to the terrifying but intriguing shadow worlds of chemical and biological engineering; CIA mind-control experiments; the American eugenics movement of the past and present; and ethnic weaponry tailored to the genetic specifications of the targeted race. A recurrent theme here is how often experimentation involves subjects who have not consented. The most unsettling chapter gives firsthand accounts by victims of Cold War CIA experiments on children: brainwashing and mind control using chemicals, radiation, hypnosis, electric shock, isolation and physical torture, all reportedly to create the perfect spy-assassin. In an era when "weapons of mass destruction" is the buzz word, this is a must read, a book that will keep you up at night wondering who the enemy really is.Copyright 2003 Reed Business Information, Inc.

From Booklist

Lest we believe that biological warfare is a modern invention, biology professor Goliszek informs us that, as far back as the Crusades, it was common practice to catapult plague-ridden human cadavers into enemy fortresses. Cartloads of human feces similarly hurled at enemies were also once time-honored weapons that were restricted only recently by international agreements. These days, biological and chemical warfare tactics are, in theory, used only by unscrupulous enemies of freedom. Goliszek claims, however, that the U.S. government conducts certain officially unacknowledged and disavowed viral and chemical weapons tests. He also recounts grisly tales of experimentation on healthy humans throughout history, all of them conducted in the name of commendable scientific research. Alas, these horrors can't be relegated to the annals of history, though, for there is no lack of current scientific experimentation on humans--biological, chemical, and genetic. Appendixes backing up some of Goliszek's claims were not available for review, and while references are provided for each chapter, precise citations within those references aren't. Donna Chavez

Copyright © American Library Association. All rights reserved

BARENBLATT, Daniel. 2004. A PLAGUE UPON HUMANITY: the Secret Genocide of Axis Japan's Germ Warfare Operation. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-018625-9  From Publishers Weekly. A useful overview of the history of biological warfare provides a historical context for the gruesome experiments on humans that began in northern China in the early 1930s, linked to the military expansion Japan began during the 1930s and fathered by scientist Shiro Ishii, who figures prominently in the book among the 20,000 Japanese professionals involved (some of whom knowingly distributed tainted food). The accounts of experiments on humans and massive germ warfare attacks against civilians-more than 400,000 Chinese died of cholera after two attacks in 1943-include the testimony of Chinese victims and witnesses as well as some Japanese. While most atrocities were committed against Chinese and Koreans, some Westerners, including American prisoners of war, were also victims. The most thoughtful portions of the book, Washington Post contributor Barenblatt's debut, explore how such atrocities "...coldly preserve medicine's scientific devices while annihilating all its high ideals." Shameful U.S. government efforts, spearheaded by MacArthur, to protect the Japanese perpetrators from prosecution in exchange for their research, even to the extent of characterizing the only war crimes trial that prosecuted perpetrators as propaganda (it was conducted by the Soviets), are well documented. The postwar material includes highly controversial claims of America's use of biological warfare during the Korean War. Although many of the gruesome facts have been published before, Barenblatt brings together the many contexts of how Japan's war machine came to commit medical-biological war crimes on a massive scale, with a final death toll of 580,000. Copyright 2003 Reed Business Information, Inc. Williams, Peter. Unit 731: Japan's Secret Biological Warfare in World War II, Free Press, 1989. ISBN 0-02-935301-7

NIE, Jing Bao, GUO, Nanyan, SELDEN, Mark, KLEINMAN, Arthur (editors)  2010. JAPAN'S WARTIME MEDICAL ATROCITIES: Comparative Inquiries in Science, History, and Ethics. 256 p. Routledge. ISBN: 978-0-415-58377-0.  Jing-Bao Nie is an Associate Professor at the Bioethics Centre, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, New Zealand, and honorary adjunct professor at Hunan Normal and Peking Universities, China. Nanyan Guo is an Associate Professor at the International Research Center for Japanese Studies, Kyoto, Japan

About the book. Prior to and during the Second World War, the Japanese Army established programs of biological warfare throughout China and elsewhere. In these “factories of death,” including the now-infamous Unit 731, Japanese doctors and scientists conducted large numbers of vivisections and experiments on human beings, mostly Chinese nationals. However, as a result of complex historical factors including an American cover-up of the atrocities, Japanese denials, and inadequate responses from successive Chinese governments, justice has never been fully served. This volume brings together the contributions of a group of scholars from different countries and various academic disciplines. It examines Japan’s wartime medical atrocities and their postwar aftermath from a comparative perspective and inquires into perennial issues of historical memory, science, politics, society and ethics elicited by these rebarbative events. The volume’s central ethical claim is that the failure to bring justice to bear on the systematic abuse of medical research by Japanese military medical personnel more than six decades ago has had a profoundly retarding influence on the development and practice of medical and social ethics in all of East Asia. The book also includes an extensive annotated bibliography selected from relevant publications in Japanese, Chinese and English. 

Contents. Introduction: Medical Atrocities, History and Ethics Arthur Kleinman, Jing-Bao Nie and Mark Selden Part I: Japan’s Medical War Crimes and Post-War Trials 1. Unit 731 and the Japanese Imperial Army’s Biological Warfare Program Tsuneishi Keiichi 2. The Legacies and Implications of Medicine-Related War Crimes Trials and Post-War Politics Suzy Wang 3. Research on Humans at the Khabarovsk War Crimes Trial: An Historical and Ethical Examination Boris G. Yudin Part II: Guilt and Responsibility: Individuals and Nations 4. Data Generated in Japan?s Biowarfare Experiments on Human Victims in China, 1932-1945, and the Ethics of Using Them. Till Bärnighausen 5. Discovering Traces of Humanity: Taking Individual Responsibility for Medical Atrocities Nanyan Guo 6. On the Altar of Nationalism and the Nation-state: Japan’s Wartime Medical Atrocities, the American Cover-up and Postwar Chinese Responses Jing-Bao Nie Part III: Ethics and Historical Memory: Parallel Lessons from Germany and USA 7. Bioethics and Exceptionalism: A German Example of Learning from Medical Atrocities Ole Döring 8. The Racial Hygienist Otmar von Vershuer’s Relation with the Confessing Church and His Post-War Rehabilitation Peter Degen 9. America’s Memory Problems: Diaspora, Civil Society and the Perils of "Chosen Amnesia" David B. MacDonald 10. Japanese and American War Atrocities, Historical Memory and Reconciliation Mark Selden Part IV: Annotated Bibliography 11. Annotated Bibliography: Primary Sources and Secondary Literature in Japanese, Chinese and English Nanyan Guo and Jing-Bao Nie Appendices Suzy Wang

 

 

NAZI ATROCITIES

 

ALEXANDER, LEO (1905-1985) 1946, 2007. DOCTORS IN INFAMY. Kessinger Publishing Co (1 Mar 2007). Psychiatrist, neurologist, university professor and author, Alexander was born in Austria, graduated in medicine in Vienna (1929), and emigrated to the US in 1933. See also Alexander, 1996.

After the war (1939-1945), he was appointed chief medical advisor to Telford Taylor, the U.S. Chief of Counsel for War Crimes, and participated in the Nuremberg Trials in November 1946. He conceived the principles of the Nuremberg Code after observing and documenting German SS medical experiments at Dachau, and instances of sterilization and euthanasia. see also, by Ulf Schmidt,  JUSTICE AT NUREMBERG: Leo Alexander and the Nazi Doctors.'Palgrave Macmillan; 2nd Revised edition(17 May 2006 Trial. Description: In 1945, after the collapse of the Third Reich, Leo Alexander worked as an Allied investigator and exposed murderous medical experiments and other atrocities of the Nazi regime. His 'top secret' mission, documented in recently discovered diaries, provided the United States with shocking evidence to prosecute 20 German doctors and three administrators for war crimes and crimes against humanity in the Nuremberg Doctors' Trial held in 1946-47. In the Nuremberg Code - a landmark in the history of modern medical ethics - the judges laid down for the first time international guidelines for permissible experiments on humans. Leo Alexander helped formulate this code. Ulf Schmidt reveals how modern medicine became the subject of greater accountability. He provides insight into the origins of human rights in medical science and into the changing role of international law, ethics and politics. Schmidt argues that Justice at Nuremberg was replaced by a stream of medical suffering during the Cold War but also concludes that the legacy of Nuremberg is more relevant today than ever - that the protection of the lives, dignity and rights of humans is what really matters. see also Alexander, L. Medical Science under Dictatorship. New Engl. J. Med. 241 (2) 39-47, 1949,

PROCTOR, Robert Neel (1954-). 1988. RACIAL HYGIENE: Medicine Under the Nazis. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-74578-7. Proctor, a Historian, professor at Stanford. From Library Journal Despite a significant body of writing on medical science and dogma under National Socialism (e.g., Alan Beyerchen's Scientists Under Hitler , LJ 10/1/77, and Robert Jay Lifton's The Nazi Doctors , LJ 9/15/86), this book provides depth and perspective on a historical period that still must be studied. Proctor (New School for Social Research) gives a rich explanation of the interaction of culture, politics, and science that engages and alerts the reader. Though Proctor is too good a historian to indulge in moralistic judgments, his careful research seduces the reader into doing so. If one accepted Aryan supremacy, Proctor shows how decisions, such as the Nuremberg Race Laws of 1935, became eminently rational. Proctor reveals a superb knowledge of the proliferation of medical literature under National Socialism. A work of stature and significance belonging in all academic libraries.Frances Groen, McGill Univ. Medical Lib., Montreal. Review: Proctor's carefully argued book not only forces us to reassess the dynamics of Nazism but also challenges pervasive notions about the political neutrality and objective value of science and the moral innocence of scientists...[A] provocative study. -Mary Nolan (New York Times Book Review )
 It is a deeply disturbing book, concerned as it is with how fine scientific minds, many of which were at least formally committed to the practice of healing, not only "sold themselves to the devil" but, through their own theoretical musings and prejudice-tinctured social concerns, anticipated his arrival. It is an at times passionate exegesis on how "value-free" science is a disingenuous contradiction in terms and, more important, on how people who believe in so chimerical an enterprise could and can contribute to social pathology...The lessons for our own age are baldly obvious. -Robert A. Pois (Science )

BURLEIGH, Michael. 1991. 1993 (paper). THE RACIAL STATE: Germany 1933-1945. 402pp. Cambridge: Cambrige University Press. From Library Journal. In looking at the racial underpinnings of virtually every move made by the Nazi state, this book tries to refute the idea that the Third Reich represented just another form of national modernization. The authors contend that the abomin-ation of Hitler and Nazism could not have happened to just any nation and, if it represented progress, it was a progress toward barbarism. They support their thesis by discussing the racist ideology of Nazism, describing the persecution of groups considered racially inferior, and looking at policies toward youth, women, and men. They argue convincingly that Nazism was on its way to creating a society demarcated by race, not economic class.- Pat Ensor, Indiana State Univ. Lib., Terre Haute.

Reviews – among others: "...the strength of this work is its comprehensive treatment of the nexus between racial ideologies and the state apparatus under the auspices of Adolph Hitler. In addition to highlighting the peculiar human tragedy of Nazi Germany, Burleigh and Wipperman's study leaves enough room for comparative assessment, as well as for consideration of the recurring popularity of Fascism which plagues France, Italy, and recently unified Germany today." Social Science Quarterly.

 "I welcome the appearance of this book. Not only does it offer a valuable comprehensive survey of the many facets of Nazi race policy: its authors make an important contribution to central questions of interpretation--Nazism's uniqueness or comparability with other systems of rule, the reactionary or modern character of Hitler's regime, and the relationship of the killing of the Jews to the barbarous persecution of other racially-determined victims." Ian Kershaw, University of Sheffield

 

BROWNING, Christopher R. 1992. ORDINARY MEN. Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland. HarperPerenial, a Division of HarperCollinsPublishers. Amazon.com Review. Shocking as it is, this book--a crucial source of original research used for the bestseller Hitler's Willing Executioners--gives evidence to suggest the opposite conclusion: that the sad-sack German draftees who perpetrated much of the Holocaust were not expressing some uniquely Germanic evil, but that they were average men comparable to the run of humanity, twisted by historical forces into inhuman shapes. Browning, a thorough historian who lets no one off the moral hook nor fails to weigh any contributing factor--cowardice, ideological indoctrination, loyalty to the battalion, and reluctance to force the others to bear more than their share of what each viewed as an excruciating duty--interviewed hundreds of the killers, who simply could not explain how they had sunken into savagery under Hitler. A good book to read along with Ron Rosenbaum's comparably excellent study Explaining Hitler. --Tim Appelo

 

CAPLAN, Arthur L (Editor) 1992, WHEN MEDICINE WENT MAD: Bioethics and the Holocaust. Totowa, New Jersey: Humana Press

From Publishers Weekly. The Nazis performed monstrous biomedical experiments on concentration camp prisoners, compiling racial and other information while slowly killing them. Should the data from these experiments be banned, or mined for their possible potential benefit? This set of papers from a 1989 symposium at the University of Minnesota (where Caplan directs the Center for Biomedical Ethics) opens with the testimonies of camp survivors, who urge that the data be shredded. Another contributor argues that the data are scientifically worthless; others agonize over the issue and conclude that the Nazi data ought to be published. Of broader interest is an essay showing how the science of racial hygiene, which supported forced sterilization of undesirable racial groups, among other policies, took hold in Germany long before the Nazis came to power. One contributor compares Nazi euthanasia to the current practice of withdrawing life-support systems from patients whose continued treatment is not "costworthy." The closing paper thoughtfully looks at ethical dilemmas surrounding the Human Genome Project, an attempt to map human genes which, critics charge, could open the door to Nazi-like abuses.
Copyright 1992 Reed Business Information, Inc.

From Library Journal- Despite its fiery and garish title, When Medicine Went Mad is a sober and scholarly analysis of the Nazi physicians who--in the name of science--carried out unspeakable atrocities upon countless victims. Caplan, a national leader in bioethics, has assembled outstanding experts on the subject, including actual research subjects of this ghastly experimentation. Contributors include well-known bioethicists such as George Annas, Ronald Cranford, Benjamin Freedman, Jay Katz, Ruth Macklin, and Caplan himself. Personal testimonies by Eva Kor, Susan Vigorito, and Gisela Konopka are particularly meaningful, forming an ideal background for vexing questions about why these atrocities happened and how to insure that they never recur. Of particular value to researchers are the essays by Katz and Annas, who boldly confront the implications of Nazi medicine for today's research into the Human Genome and various other fields of study. Recommended for academic and medical school libraries. - David A. Buehler, Charlton Memorial Hosp., Fall River, Mass. Copyright 1992 Reed Business Information, Inc.

ALY, Götz, Peter CHROUST, and Christian PROSS.1994. CLEANSING THE FATHERLAND: Nazi Medicine and Racial Hygiene. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, cf http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10005200  Reviewed by Douglas R, Skopp in http://fcit.usf.edu/holocaust/Resource/REVIEWS/Aly.HTM

BURLEIGH, Michael. 1994, DEATH AND DELIVERANCE: "EUTHANASIA" IN GERMANY C. 1900-1945. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. cf http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10005200

From Kirkus Reviews. A chilling documentation of what happened in Germany when the Nazis seized power and put their ideas on eugenics and euthanasia into action. Burleigh (International History/London School of Economics; coauthor, The Racial State, not reviewed) points out that the Nazi program began with a humanitarian rationalization: Mentally and physically disabled children were subject to ``mercy killing'' as a form of deliverance. Soon, however, ``mercy killing'' evolved into the elimination of ``life unworthy of life'' as the Nazi killing machine expanded to include more and more victims, and as political, legal, moral, and religious opposition was quashed by the fear of reprisals and totalitarian power. Burleigh demonstrates how Nazi eugenics perverted German medicine and science: Scientists approved the sterilization of some 400,000 people between 1934 and 1945 to eradicate ``degenerative heredity'' in order to ``improve the race.'' Doctors, particularly psychiatrists, were encouraged to falsify medical records, give lethal injections, starve patients, and use other creative means of murder while ignoring the age-old dictum of the physician, ``Do no harm.'' Burleigh also details how asylum populations were decimated as managers, bureaucrats, lawyers, doctors, nurses, and other professionals, corrupted by monetary awards and promotions, played their parts in the Nazi murder industry. Daily killings became routine as Nazi propagandists extolled social Darwinism. Burleigh describes how victims were targeted, including Jews, foreigners, enemies of the Reich, gypsies, and those who lacked ``labor values.'' Occasional accounts of humanity brighten the grim story, as medical Schindlers saved patients from death by listing them as valuable workers who were badly needed. After the war, some of the Nazi eugenicists, tried at Nuremberg and in German courts, were executed, while others received light sentences. Most melted into the general population under new identities. A notable contribution to the history of Nazi Germany--and a sobering reminder of what can happen when the claims of science, bureaucracy, and expertise go unchallenged. -- Copyright ©1994, Kirkus Associates, LP. All rights reserved. -

 

FRIEDLANDER, Henry. 1995. Paperback 1997. THE ORIGINS OF NAZI GENOCIDE: FROM EUTHANASIA TO THE FINAL SOLUTION. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. 448pp. A historian, Friedlander was a professor of Judaic Studies at Brooklyn College of the City University of New York (see wikipedia).  From Publishers Weekly.ed Friedlander tracks the Nazi program of genocide back to 1940 with the murder of some 5000 handicapped children, euthanasia that was subsequently expanded to include disabled Jews and Gypsies. The targeting of these three groups was based on the Nazis' belief in human inequality and their determination to ``cleanse the gene pool of the German nation.'' Thus began the euthanasia program in which debate over the most efficient method of mass murder led to the construction of killing centers where crippled children were gassed and cremated. Friedlander shows that the success of the program convinced the Nazis that mass murder was technically workable, that ordinary citizens were willing to slaughter large numbers of innocent people. The killing centers became models for the extermination camps of the Final Solution. ``When all is said and done, we are still unable to grasp the reasons that seemingly normal men and women were able to commit such extraordinary crimes,'' concludes Friedlander.

cf http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10005200. Useful critical review by Joerg Bottger in http://courses.washington.edu/intro2ds/Readings/Bottger-review.pdf. Also review by Roni Rankin in http://academic.kellogg.edu/mandel/rankin_rev.htm

GALLAGHER, Hugh Gregory (1932-2004). 1995. BY TRUST BETRAYED: PATIENTS, PHYSICIANS, AND THE LICENSE TO KILL IN THE THIRD REICH. Arlington, VA: Vandamere Press, 1995. Gallagher was an author and an international disability advocate (wikipedia). Review. Gallagher's moving study of the systematic murder of the physically and mentally disabled in the Third Reich is a riveting account that covers the subject from the larger social and historical context to the smallest details of how the killing centers functioned. It is based on extensive research, including captured Nazi documents, transcripts of testimony of the doctors and other participants in the killing program, and personal interviews. By Trust Betrayed provides new insight into the honor of ordinary people doing monstrous things under the aegis of ''science'' in Nazi Germany. It also raises troubling questions about many contemporary theories and ideas dealing with euthanasia, health care, and medical ethics.

DEICHMANN. Ute, 1996. BIOLOGISTS UNDER HITLER. Translated by Thomas Dunlap. Cambridge, Mass. and London: Harvard University Press, Pp. 468. Cloth $39.95. ISBN 0-674-07404-1. cf  http://www.ess.uwe.ac.uk/genocide/reviewstr18.htm

Book overview (Google) This is the first book to examine the impact of Nazism on the lives and research of a generation of German biologists. Drawing on previously unutilized archival material, Deichmann, herself a biologist, explores not only what happened to the biologists forced to emigrate but also the careers, science, and crimes of those who stayed in Germany. This book combines exhaustive research with capsule bioographies of key scientits to overturn certain assumptions about.science under the Nazi regime. Biological research, for instance, was neither neglectedunor under funded during World War II. Funding by the German Research Association (DFG) in fact incresaed tenfold between 1933 and 1938, and genetic research in particular flourished. Deichman shows that the forced emigration of Jews had a less significant impact in biology than in other fields. Furthermore, she reveals that the widely observed decline in German biology after 1945 was not caused primarily by the Third Reich science policy or by the expulsion of biologists but was due to the internationalisolation of German scientists as part of the legacy of National Socialism. Her book  also provides overwhelming evidence of German scientists’conscious misrepresentation after the war of their wartime activities. In this regard, Deichmann’s capsule biography of Konrad Lorenz is particularly telling. Review by Michael Thaler in the Bull Med 72(2) 1998. login?uri=/journals/bulletin_of_the_history_of_medicine/v072/72.2br_deichmann.htmlhttp://muse.jhu.edu/

 

ALEXANDER, Leo (1905-1985) 1996 (reprinted). MEDICAL SCIENCE UNDER DICTATORSHIP. 32pp Bibliographic Pr. Description. How could the Nazis and their perverse beliefs dominate most of Europe and perpetrate the Holocaust? Dr. Leo Alexander, M.D., the chief American medical consultant at the Nuremberg war crimes trials, answers this troubling question in a work described by Dr. C. Everett Koop as "a remarkable paper."

Alexander's specific focus is an examination of the process by which the German medical profession became a willing and unquestioning collaborator with the Nazis. In describing the "subtle shift in attitude" that led to the horrors of the concentration camps. Dr. Alexander demonstrates how "from small beginning" the values of an entire society were perverted. Moreover, he shows the consequences of disbelief in the sancitity of human life and the paramount importance of morality in politics.

In the words of Malcolm Muggeridge, "no one could have put the matter more cogently and authoritatively than has Dr. Leo Alexander." It is therefore appropriate that this s! tudy, originally addressed to the U.S. medical profession in the July 14, 1949 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine, is now available to the public at large.

GOLDHAGEN, D.J. 1996. HITLER’S WILLING EXECUTIONERS: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust. New York: Alfred E. Knopf.

Amazon.com Review. In a work that is as authoritative as it is explosive, Goldhagen forces us to revisit and reconsider our understanding of the Holocaust and its perpetrators, demanding a fundamental revision in our thinking of the years between 1933-1945. Drawing principally on materials either unexplored or neglected by previous scholars, Goldhagen marshals new, disquieting primary evidence that explains why, when Hitler conceived of the "final solution" he was able to enlist vast numbers of willing Germans to carry it out. 

From Publishers Weekly Goldhagen's gripping and shocking landmark study transforms our understanding of the Holocaust. Refuting the widespread notion that those who carried out the genocide of Jews were primarily SS men or Nazi party members, he demonstrates that the perpetrators, those who staffed and oversaw the concentration camps, slave labor camps, genocidal army units, police battalions, ghettos, death marches were, for the most part, ordinary German men and women: merchants, civil servants, academics, farmers, students, managers, skilled and unskilled workers. Rejecting the conventional view that the killers were slavishly carrying out orders under coercion, Goldhagen, assistant professor of government at Harvard, uses hitherto untapped primary sources, including the testimonies of the perpetrators themselves, to show that they killed Jews willingly, approvingly, even zealously. Hitler's genocidal program of a "Final Solution" found ready accomplices in these ordinary Germans who, as Goldhagen persuasively argues, had absorbed a virulent, "eliminationist" anti-Semitism, prevalent as far back as the 18th century, which demonized the Jews and called for their expulsion or physical annihilation. Furthermore, his research reveals that a large proportion of the killers were told by their commanders that they could disobey orders to kill, without fear of retribution?yet they slaughtered Jews anyway. By his careful estimate, hundreds of thousands of Germans were directly involved in the mass murder, and millions more knew of the ongoing genocide. Among the 30 photographs are snapshots taken by the murderers of themselves and their victims. Copyright 1996 Reed Business Information, Inc.

HÖSS, Rudolf. 1992, 1996 (Paper). DEATH DEALER: The Memoirs of the SS Kommandant at Auschwitz, with an introduction by Primo Levi, Sentient Press.

From Publishers Weekly This first complete English translation of a senior Nazi officer's account of the Final Solution describes in cold, stomach-churning detail the program of genocide as an administrative procedure. Written during the six months before his 1947 execution in Warsaw for "crimes committed against the Polish people," Hoss's memoirs are filled with specific recollections, from his fervently religious boyhood in Mannheim, through a prison term in Liepzig (for having killed a fellow soldier), to marriage and induction into the SS in 1934. Particulars of his roles in the concentration camp system include his ordering of "the first execution of the war" at Sachsenhausen in 1938 and his 1941 assignment to establish and manage Auschwitz as "the largest human killing center in all of history." Personal squabbles with other SS leaders are interspersed with chilling descriptions of prison conditions and gassing procedures. This compelling historical document, from which Hoss emerges as a classic model of the bureaucratic middle manager, is expertly edited by Paskuly, a history teacher in New York; Pollinger's translation is seamless. Photos not seen by PW.  Copyright 1992 Reed Business Information, Inc.

From Library Journal The man who presided over the expansion and lethal functioning of Auschwitz concentration camp, which surely earned him the distinction of being "the greatest destroyer of human beings in history," left behind this memoir before he was executed by the Poles at the end of World War II. A dedicated bureaucrat, Hoss smothered his feelings and devoted his talents to the killing of millions, even though he "personally never hated the Jews." The work was hard, and he "was no longer happy at Auschwitz once the mass annihilation began." An editorial glossary of terms and personalities enhances the usefulness of this valuable addition to Holocaust studies, a chilling self-portrait of an all-too-typical servant of totalitarianism. - R.H. Johnston, McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario Copyright 1992 Reed Business Information, Inc.

 

MÜLLER-HILL, Benno. 1998. MURDEROUS SCIENCE: Elimination by Scientific Selection of Jews, Gypsies and Others in Germany, 1933-1945. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Description.  In the 1920s and 1930s, advocates for eugenics claimed that genes influenced human behavior, but with no valid evidence. In Germany the Nazis adopted their ideas to justify violent anti-semitism. In this new, expanded edition of the English translation of his compelling book T Tödliche Wissenschaft, the German geneticist Benno Müller-Hill documents the long-suppressed collusion of eugenics and racist politics which resulted in the mass murder of millions. In a new Afterword, he warns against the misuse today of newly emerging knowledge about human heredity. In an accompanying essay, James D. Watson, describes a recent visit to Berlin and his impressions of the legacy of eugenics in German science.

 

Short video recordings in http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/media_oi.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10007014&MediaId=5090,  Deadly Medicine: Creating the Master Race, by Benno Müller-Hill, Antje Kosemund and Elvira Manthey vividly describe the euthanasia program, sterilization, medical experiments (sic) of the Nazis. http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/media_oi.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10007014&MediaId=5090

see also Müller-Hill, B. 2009. Inhuman Research: Medical Experiments in Germany Concentration Camps (Review) Persp. Biol. Med. 52 (1).

ROSE, Paul Lawrence. 1998. HEISENBERG AND THE NAZI ATOMIC BOMB PROJECT: A Study in German Culture. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998. Frp, The Am History Review 105 (2) 2000. 

Werner Heisenberg, the inventor of quantum mechanics and a Nobel laureate in 1933, at the age of thirty-two, was one of the twentieth century's most creative physicists. "The end justifies the means," he would say, in justification of the unprincipled methods by which he tried to crack problems that others could not solve. His friend and sparring partner of the 1920s, Wolfgang Pauli, complained to their mentor and conscience, Niels Bohr, that Heisenberg, though brilliant, was "very unphilosophical." No harsher condemnation was available in the intellectual hothouse directed by Bohr, who had invented the quantum theory of the atom and directed its development until Heisenberg unphilosophically devised quantum mechanics.

In the 1930s, as professor of physics at the University of Leipzig, Heisenberg was attacked by the SS as a "white Jew" for teaching the non-German "abstract" physics developed by the full Jew Albert Einstein and the half-Jew Bohr. Heisenberg deflected the attack by appealing to Heinrich Himmler, to whom he had access through a family connection. The Nazis came to condone the teaching of relativity, without mention of its inventor's name, and Heisenberg enjoyed the patronage of the leader of the SS. He moved from Leipzig to Berlin as director of the Kaiser-Wilhelm Institut für Physik. There the main German "uranium project" had its seat.

Synopsis. No one better represents the plight and the conduct of German intellectuals under Hitler than Werner Heisenberg, whose task it was to build an atomic bomb for Nazi Germany. The controversy surrounding Heisenberg still rages, because of the nature of his work and the regime for which it was undertaken. What precisely did Heisenberg know about the physics of the atomic bomb. How deep was his loyalty to the German government during the Third Reich. Assuming that he had been able to build a bomb, would he have been willing? These questions, the moral and the scientific, are answered by Paul Lawrence Rose with greater accuracy and breadth of documentation than any other historian has yet achieved.

Digging deep into the archival record among formerly secret technical reports, Rose establishes that Heisenberg never overcame certain misconceptions about nuclear fission, and as a result the German leaders never pushed for atomic weapons. In fact, Heisenberg never had to face the moral problem of whether he should design a bomb for the Nazi regime. Only when he and his colleagues were interned in England and heard about Hiroshima did Heisenberg realize that his calculations were wrong. He began at once to construct an image of himself as a "pure" scientist who could have built a bomb but chose to work on reactor design instead. This was fiction, as Rose demonstrates: in reality, Heisenberg blindly supported and justified the cause of German victory. The question of why he did, and why he misrepresented himself afterwards, is answered through Rose's subtle analysis of German mentality and the scientists' problems of delusion and self-delusion. This fascinating study is a profound effort tounderstand one of the twentieth century's great enigmas.

KATER, Michael. 2000. DOCTORS UNDER HITLER. (paperback).University of North Carolina Press. 448pp. ISBN-10: 0807848581. Product Description

In this history of medicine and the medical profession in the Third Reich, Michael Kater examines the career patterns, educational training, professional organization, and political socialization of German physicians under Hitler. His discussion ranges widely, from doctors who participated in Nazi atrocities, to those who actively resisted the regime's perversion of healing, to the vast majority whose ideology and behavior fell somewhere between the two extremes. He also takes a chilling look at the post-Hitler medical establishment's problematic relationship to the Nazi past.

LIFTON, Robert Jay. 2000. THE NAZI DOCTORS: Medical killing and the Psychology of Genocide. 576 pp. New York: Basic Books.

From Publishers Weekly Nazi doctors did more than conduct bizarre experiments on concentration-camp inmates; they supervised the entire process of medical mass murder, from selecting those who were to be exterminated to disposing of corpses. Lifton (The Broken Connection; The Life of the Self shows that this medically supervised killing was done in the name of "healing," as part of a racist program Hisam to cleanse the Aryan body politic. After the German eugenics campaign of the 1920s for forced sterilization of the "unfit,"it was but one step to "euthanasia," which in the Nazi context meant systematic murder of Jews. Building on interviews with former Nazi physicians and their prisoners, Lifton presents a disturbing portrait of careerists who killed to overcome feelings of powerlessness. He includes a chapter on Josef Mengele and one on Eduard Wirths, the "kind," "decent" doctor (as some inmates described him) who set up the Auschwitz death machinery. Lifton also psychoanalyzes the German people, scarred by the devastation of World War I and mystically seeking regeneration. This profound study ranks with the most insightful books on the Holocaust.
Copyright 1986 Reed Business Information, Inc.  

From Library Journal This extraordinary work analyzes the terrible, seemingly contradictory phenomenon of doctors becoming agents of mass murder. With chilling power, it limns the Nazi transmutation of values that allowed medical killing to be seen as a therapeutic healing of the body politic. Based on arresting historical scholarship and personal interviews with Nazi and prisoner doctors, the book traces the inexorable logic leading from early Nazi sterilization and euthanasia of its own citizens to mass extermination of European Jews and other "racial undesirables." Ultimately the book asks how doctors rationalized being "killer-healers." Lifton's response is a multifaceted evaluation of genocide, of the seductive power of Nazi ideology, and of the psychological process of "doubling"is both profound and thought-provoking. A remarkable achievement; it is essential reading. Benny Kraut, Judaic Studies Dept., Univ. of Cincinnati
Copyright 1986 Reed Business Information, Inc.

 

POSNER, Gerald. 2000  MENGELE: The Complete Story. (paperback) New York: Cooper Square Press. ...In this book explores the dark side to the Holocaust, is given a human face in the form of the smiling and smartly-dressed SS doctor, Josef Mengele. ...Well known to survivors and Holocaust historians/ scholars, there is little literature that paints a portrait of this man, from his spoon-fed existence in Bavaria and later several decades in South American havens until his death in Brasil. The author had access to Mengele's unpublished and largely unused diaries and autobiography (still not released by the Mengele family)' ... .

PROCTOR, Robert Neel (1954- ). 2000. ADOLF BUTENANDT (1903-1995): Nobelpreisträger, Nationalsozialist und MPG-Präsident: Ein erster Blick in den Nachlass. Berlin: Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften. LCCN 2001-375957. 

BRYANT, Michael S. 2005. CONFRONTING THE "GOOD DEATH": Nazi Euthanasia on Trial, 1945-1953. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, cf http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10005200

Description. Years before Hitler unleashed the "Final Solution" to annihilate European Jews, he began a lesser-known campaign to eradicate the mentally ill, which facilitated the gassing and lethal injection of as many as 270,000 people and set a precedent for the Nazis' mass murder of civilians.

In Confronting the "Good Death," Michael Bryant tells the story of the U.S. government and West German judiciary's attempt to punish the euthanasia killers after the war. His fascinating work is the first to address the impact of geopolitics on the courts' representation of Nazi euthanasia, revealing how international power relationships played havoc with the prosecutions.

Drawing on primary sources and extensive research in archives in Germany and the U.S., Bryant offers a provocative investigation of the Nazi campaign against the mentally ill and the postwar quest for justice. His work will interest general readers and provide critical information for scholars of Holocaust studies, legal history, and human rights.

SPITZ,Vivien. 2000. DOCTORS FROM HELL: The Horrific Account of Nazi Experiments on Humans. From Booklist.  Spitz reported the Nuremberg War Crimes Trials in Germany from 1946 to 1948 for the U.S. War Department. In writing her book, she worked from a condensed transcript of the 11,538-page court reporters' record, which she helped prepare. Her horrendous story of evil--and ultimate justice--covers the trials of 20 doctors and three medical assistants charged with crimes against humanity and calculated genocide. She recounts experiments in which concentration-camp inmates were forced into high-altitude chambers and sent to 68,000 feet without oxygen; the suffering of inmates forced to undergo freezing experiments in tanks of ice water until they died; malaria experiments on 1,200 inmates; and experiments in which inmates were artificially wounded and infected with mustard gas. There were sulfanilamide experiments conducted on Polish Catholic priests in Dachau, and seawater experiments on Gypsies. Spitz also reports on the judgments and sentences in these trials. The book paints a nightmarish picture of a world without hope that had lost all its values and meaning. George Cohen Copyright © American Library Association. Review "In this personal account of her service in the Nuremberg War Crimes Trials, Vivien Spitz continues to contribute to the cause of human rights..." -- President Jimmy Carter.

 

MANNHATTAN PROJECT: SCIENTISTS AND THE ATOM BOMB

 

BUSH, Vannevar. 1949. MODERN ARMS AND FREE MEN: A discussion of the role of science in preserving democracy. Simon and Schuster. 1st ed.

 

GROVES, Leslie R. (1896-1970) 1962. NOW IT CAN BE TOLD: The Story Of The Manhattan Project. New York: Perseus Books. Da Capo Press paperbacl. 1983.

 

General Leslie Groves and J. Robert Oppenheimer were the two men chiefly responsible for the building of the first atomic bomb at Los Alamos, code name "The Manhattan Project." As the ranking military officer in charge of marshalling men and material for what was to be the most ambitious, expensive engineering feat in history, it was General Groves who hired Oppenheimer (with knowledge of his left-wing past), planned facilities that would extract the necessary enriched uranium, and saw to it that nothing interfered with the accelerated research and swift assembly of the weapon.This is his story of the political, logistical, and personal problems of this enormous undertaking which involved foreign governments, sensitive issues of press censorship, the construction of huge plants at Hanford and Oak Ridge, and a race to build the bomb before the Nazis got wind of it. The role of groves in the Manhattan Project has always been controversial. In his new introduction the noted physicist Edward Teller, who was there at Los Alamos, candidly assesses the general's contributions—and Oppenheimer's—while reflecting on the awesome legacy of their work.

Son of an Army chaplain, Groves went to MIT before attending West Point. He was commissioned into the Army Corps of Engineers, completing his engineering studies at Camp A. A. Humphreys (now Fort Belvoir), 1918–21. He did not therefore fight in the First World War. After he retired from Army Service, in 1948 Groves went on to become a Vice-President at Sperry Rand until 1961.. (Wikipedia).

As can be expected. there are numerous books on the Mannhattan Project and the role of scientists and engineers in the development of the atom and hydrogen bombs and many other weapons.

 

WEART, Spencer R. and Gertrude WEISS SZILARD (Eds.):1978.  LEO SZILARD: HIS VERSION OF THE FACTS.* Selected Recollections and Correspondence. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press. cf  also Lanouette, 1992.

 

The life and work of the Hungarian physicist Leo Szilard (1898-1964) illustrate the ethical questions raised by the longstanding participation of scientists, in the development of the large variety of weapons devised to use in war as well as in the subjection or "control" of unruly populations.  He not only conceived the nuclear chain reaction but, in competition with German scientists, demonstrated it in the laboratory in collaboration with Enrico Fermi, Early in the Second World War, afraid that the Germans would be developing an atom bomb, Szilard wrote the famous letter to Roosevelt, cosigned with Albert Einstein (who had been one of his thesis advisor); This letter triggered the Mannhatan project, directed by the physicist Julius Robert Oppenheimer.  As the war in Europe was coming to an end, Szilard realized that the bomb should not be used and tried, unsuccessfully, to stop the US military to release the bombs on Hiroshima and Nagazaki. After the war Szilard worked against the further development of nuclear weapons, and abandoned physics for biology. The English Wiki gives an excellent account of Szilard´s life.

See also, Olga Gurevich´s page on Leo Szilard, http://repont.tcc.virginia.edu/classes/tcc313/200rprojs/manhattan/szilard.html;

Dr. Ray Cooper´s The Ten Commandments of Leo Szilard*

 

LANOUETTE, William. 1992. GENIUS IN THE SHADOW. A Biography of Leo Szilard, The Man Behind the Bomb. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. cf. Feld & Weiss-Szilard. 1972.Paperback 1994.

From Publishers Weekly. The shadows that have obscured physicist Szilard (1898-1964) have, ironically, been cast by the monuments of the atomic age his work catalyzed: the Cold War, nuclear power and such icons as Robert Oppenheimer. In this comprehensive study, science writer Lanouette and Szilard, the subject's brother, cast welcome light on the physicist's career and character. The Hungarian-born Szilard was at the epicenter of the Manhattan Project--indeed, he patented the first reactor design with Enrico Fermi--but his concern over the destructive uses of atomic power (and a degree of personal eccentricity) isolated him from the celebrity (and Nobel prizes) that came to other founding fathers of quantum physics. Though the authors' fine brushstrokes--such as their record of what the physicist and his brother ate for dinner one night in 1923--sometimes overwhelm their portrait of Szilard himself, readers will find Szilard to be a "curious and human character" whose engagement with his work and its consequences was so profound that it can make other figures of the era seem hollow.  Copyright 1992 Reed Business Information, Inc. --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

 

HERSHBERG, James. 1993. JAMES B. CONANT: From Harvard to Hiroshima and the Making of the Nuclear Age. Knopf.  948pp.

For a set of 5 reviews on Hershberg book, see http://catalog.dclibrary.org/vufind/Record/u197987/Reviews

From Publishers Weekly. James Bryant Conant (1893-1978), while president of Harvard University and as scientific adviser to the Roosevelt administration, advised FDR of the feasibility of building an atomic bomb; his recommendations spurred the secret crash program that culminated in the destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. A liaison between the White House and Manhattan Project scientists, Conant in 1945 gave Truman fateful advice on where the new weapon should be dropped. Hershberg, a historian at the Woodrow Wilson International Center in Washington, D.C., reveals that although Conant publicly supported U.S. postwar nuclear preparedness, he lobbied secretly for a U.S.-led global nuclear moratorium, a proposal that was ignored...While Conant defended academic freedom against the McCarthyite witch hunt, he nevertheless endorsed a policy of automatically dismissing any faculty member who refused to name associates who had attended communist meetings. Conant's Harvard administration appears to have turned over confidential information about students to the FBI.  

 

From Library Journal. Organic chemist, Harvard University president for two decades (1933-1953), and nuclear- weapons mandarin, James Bryant Conant (1893-1978) published a ponderous and unrevealing autobiography [My Several Lives, 1970]. In a massive but engrossing look at Conant's public life, Hershberg (a historian at the Woodrow Wilson Center in Washington, D.C.) illuminates the importance of this enigmatic and undeservedly obscure figure (James B. Conant, 1993 Because of the  magnitude of his undertaking, as well as the secrecy maintained by both Harvard and the US government over many relevant files, Hershberg has concentrated on Conant's careers as ``atomic bomb administrator”, nuclear and scientific adviser to the government, Harvard president during the `Red Scare,' Cold War public figure, and envoy to Germany''. Hershberg relates the story of child prodigy Conant's upbringing in a Boston suburb, his rise to academic excellence at Harvard, and his profitable work in the ``chemist's war'' of WW I--where he ``threw himself into the task of producing poison gases, confronting for the first time the moral quandaries involved in a scientist's participation in constructing deadly weapons rather than advancing knowledge.'' After the war, Conant became equally absorbed in his groundbreaking chemical research at Harvard, until, in 1933, he was appointed the university's president--a posting that prompted him to pursue a liberal policy, reforming tenure procedures and making the school more democratic and less hidebound. In 1941, Conant joined a group of scholars studying the question of whether to develop a nuclear weapon, and he played a key role in the Manhattan Project. Until the early 1950's, he constantly advised the feds on nuclear policy--especially on attempts to control the proliferation of nuclear weapons--and he campaigned against the development of the hydrogen bomb. Later, Conant presided over Germany's rearmament and became America's first ambassador to West Germany. Finally, in 1957, at age 65, he commenced a new career as ``author, commentator, and critic on American public education. (Kirkus Reviews Copyright (c) VNU Business Media, Inc.) For long excerpts of Hershberg’s book see http://books.google.com/books?id=fqhzrXn1RE0C&sitesec=reviews&source=gbs_navlinks_s

 

A less known facet of James Bryant Conant.

From Wikipedia – As the president of Harvard (1933-1953), Conant led the administration in welcoming the Hitler regime. He had high ranking Nazi officials visit the campus and give speeches, including the 1934 commencement address by Ernst Hanfstaeng while he restricted admission of Jewish students and hiring of Jewish faculty.]2 In the words of historians Morton and Phyllis Keller, he "shared the mild antisemitism common to his social group and time." [3] Another shameful incident in his career took place in 1940 when he apologized to the commanding admiral of Annapolis after the Harvard lacrosse team attempted to field a player of African-American descent. Navy's coach refused to field his team. Harvard's athletic director, William J. Bingham, overruled his lacrosse coach and had the player, Lucien Victor Alexis Jr., sent back to Cambridge on a train.[4] After serving in World War II, Alexis was subsequently refused admittance to Harvard Medical school on the grounds that, as the only black student, he would therefore have no one to room with. 1) Stephen H. Norwood, Legitimating Nazism: Harvard University and the Hitler regime, 1933-1937, American Jewish History, June 2004.  2) Morton and Phyllis Keller, Harvard’s Jews, women, and blacks. Making Harvard modern, New York: Oxford University Press, 2001, 578 pp.

 

            It may be of interest that a doctoral student of Janes Connant, the organic chemist Louis Frederick Fieser (1899-1977), Ph.D, 1924, led a tem of scientists who in 1942, at Harvard University, developed the incendiary product "Napalm", which, produced by Dow Chemicals, was widely used during WW II, the Korean and Vietnam wars by American forces and their allies. For Fieseer´s National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoir by Marshall Gates, see http://books.nap.edu/html/biomems/lfieser.pdf

UDALL Stewart .L. 1994. THE MYTHS OF AUGUST. New York: Pantheon. From Publishers Weekly Above-ground nuclear bomb tests in Nevada after WW II made human guinea pigs of civilians living downwind in several western states, as later revealed by thousands of cases of radiation-induced cancer, childhood leukemia, burns and birth defects. In an expose of the government's decades-long policy of public deception concerning the hazards of radiation, Udall, secretary of the interior under JFK and LBJ and a former congressman from Arizona, condemns the U.S. nuclear testing program as a violation of the Nuremberg Code. He also describes his protracted struggle as a lawyer, beginning in 1979, representing the widows of Navajo uranium miners who developed cancer. Myths sustained by Cold War military competition have warped our national ethos, contends Udall. Disputing the popular belief that Manhattan Project scientists were locked in a desperate race against the Nazis, he summarizes evidence that Secretary of War Henry Stimson and Manhattan Project manager General Leslie Groves had ample indication that Hitler was not rushing to build an atomic bomb. In Udall's analysis, Stimson played the crucial role in the decision to incinerate Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a decision rubber-stamped by President Truman, whose advisers never presented to him the full range of war-ending options. The atomic bomb's existence, Udall maintains, may have even prolonged the war by influencing Stimson and Truman to ignore an opportunity to negotiate a Japanese surrender in May or June 1945. Udall ends this indictment by calling for a drastic reduction in government secrecy justified in the name of national security, an end to the continuing arms race and a redeployment of resources toward sustainable domestic and Third World development. (June) *PAPERBACKS
Copyright 1994 Reed Business Information, Inc. --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

From Library Journal. Udall examines the historical and philosophical development of the U.S. nuclear program and its consequences. In the first half of the book, Udall explodes myths that Americans continue to harbor about the development and use of the atomic bomb. These include the belief that the bombing of Japan was necessary to save American lives and that Hitler's Germany was on the verge of exploding its own nuclear device. This is the most powerful portion of Udall's work. The remainder of the book, while strongly felt, does not live up to the preceding chapters. Here Udall discusses the tragedy of the "downwinders" (he was one of the first lawyers to represent Americans exposed to fallout from nuclear testing in the Western states) and critiques the peaceful uses of nuclear power. For its devastating review of the military mindset that produced the Cold War, this book is recommended. --Randy Dykhuis, OHIONET, Columbus.

SEIDEL, Robert W.  1995. LOS ALAMOS AND THE MAKING OF THE ATOM BOMB. Los Alamos, N.M.: Otowi Press;

SCHWEBER, Silvan S. 2000. IN THE SHADOW OF THE BOMB: Bethe, Oppenheimer, and the Moral Responsability of the Scientist. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press. Schweber is a physicist and a historian of science, serving as professor of physics and professor of the history of ideas at Brandeis University.

From Scientific American. Many a scientist has to think today about what Schweber calls "the danger of the knowledge of certain technologies." It is an issue that came into sharp focus with the development of the atomic bomb. Schweber treats it by tracing the careers of physicists J. Robert Oppenheimer and Hans Bethe, with emphasis on their answers to the question "What is the role of the scientist in a democracy?" In so doing he sets the stage for an inquiry into other profound and troubling questions: "What did it in fact mean for scientists to address problems affecting all of humankind? What moral and political responsibilities did it entail, particularly during the beginning of the Cold War and in the McCarthy era? And how did scientists respond to these demands?".

Amazon.com Review. Open a survey-textbook treatment of the development of the atomic and hydrogen bombs, and you will certainly encounter J. Robert Oppenheimer's name within the first few lines. The contributions of Hans A. Bethe, a gifted physicist who fled Nazi Germany and was quickly recruited for the Allied cause, were arguably no less important than Oppenheimer's. But, writes Silvan Schweber--himself a physicist who studied at Princeton University while Albert Einstein and Oppenheimer were in residence there--Bethe has been largely forgotten, and perhaps not accidentally.

*                               Oppenheimer, Schweber suggests, was so attentive to seeking fame and influence that he was too quickly willing to compromise his principles on such matters as the use of atomic weaponry in warfare. His nadir came when, testifying before Joseph McCarthy's House Un-464 pages

American Activities Committee in 1949, Oppenheimer denounced several of his colleagues as Communist sympathizers--and this from a man who had been closely involved in leftist politics before World War II. By contrast, Bethe, as Schweber writes admiringly in this study of the two scientists' lives and work, went out of his way to "act courageously in the interests of community and humankind," in both the scientific and political realms. Troubled by his role in creating weapons of mass destruction and intent on taking morally correct actions, Bethe spent much of his postwar energies quietly arguing for arms reduction, an effort that contributed to the international nuclear test ban treaty of 1963. --Gregory McNamee

HERKEN, Greggg. 2002. BROTHERHOOD OF THE BOMB: The Tangled Lives and Loyalties of Robert Oppenheimer, Ernest Lawrence and Edward Teller. New York:  Henry Holt and Co.464pp. ISBN-10: 0805065881

From Publishers Weekly The personalities of the scientists who made the nuclear bomb are the focus of this detailed, engrossing history of one of the greatest scientific discoveries of the 20th century. Relying on author interviews and primary and secondary sources, Herken (The Winning Weapons) explains the backgrounds of the three physicists who were essential to the creation of the atomic bombs dropped over Japan during WWII. But even though the author focuses on Oppenheimer, Lawrence and Teller offering both brief bios of each and depicting the sometimes-tempestuous relationships among them it's the former who garners the lion's share of his attention. "Oppie," as he was known, has long been a controversial figure for his later opposition to weapons programs and his alleged Communist links (he was stripped of his U.S. government security clearance during the McCarthy years). As Herken notes, the trial might have had a backlash, turning many scientists against U.S. defense projects for years to come. But there's no smoking gun here: Herken argues that it is unlikely that Oppenheimer, despite his strong leftist sympathies, was ever a member of the Communist Party, let alone a spy. But he nicely details the intersection between the scientific and leftist communities (particularly during the 1920s and 1930s) and the government's attempt to infiltrate these communities after the war. The book is unlikely to end the debate over Oppenheimer's past or change any minds about the balances between security needs and civil liberties but if there was ever a question that politics plays a part in science, this book washes away any doubts. Copyright 2002 Cahners Business Information, Inc.

WITTNER, Lawrence S.(1941- ). 2009. CONFRONTING THE BOMB: A Short History of the World Nuclear Disarmament Movement (Stanford Nuclear Age Series). Stanford: Stanford University Press. Description. Confronting the Bomb tells the story of how citizen activism helped curb the nuclear arms race and prevent nuclear war. This abbreviated version of Wittner's award-winning trilogy, The Struggle Against the Bomb, shows how a worldwide, grassroots campaign—the largest social movement of modern times—challenged the nuclear priorities of the great powers and, ultimately, thwarted their nuclear ambitions.

Based on massive research in the files of peace and disarmament organizations and in formerly top secret government records, interviews with antinuclear activists and government officials, and memoirs and other published materials, Confronting the Bomb opens a window on one of the most important issues of the modern era: survival in the nuclear age. It covers the entire period of significant opposition to the bomb, from the final stages of the Second World War up to the present. Along the way, it provides fascinating glimpses of the interaction of key nuclear disarmament activists and policymakers, including Albert Einstein, Harry Truman, Albert Schweitzer, Norman Cousins, Nikita Khrushchev, Bertrand Russell, Andrei Sakharov, Linus Pauling, Dwight Eisenhower, Harold Macmillan, John F. Kennedy, Randy Forsberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, Helen Caldicott, E.P. Thompson, and Ronald Reagan. Overall, however, it is a story of popular mobilization and its effectiveness.

 

SOVIET REPRESSION, LYSENKO AND GENETICS

JORAVSKY, DAVID. 1961, 2008. SOVIET MARXISM AND NATURAL SCIENCE : 1917-1932. Taylor & Francis, Inc. Joravsky is Emeritus Professor of History at Northwestern University. Synopsis. Originally published in 1961. Russian Marxist philosophy of science originated among men and women who gave their whole lives to rebellion against established authority. The original tension within Marxist philosophy between positivism and metaphysics was repressed but not resolved in this first phase of Soviet Marxism. In this volume the author correlates the development of ideas with trends in the Cultural Revolution and against this background it is possible to understand why debates over general philosophy gave way to conflicts over specific sciences in the aftermath of the first Five Year Plan and why there was a genuine crisis in Soviet biology.

MEDVEDEV, Zhores (1925- ), 1969. THE RISE AND FALL OF T.D. LYSENKO .New York, Columbia University Press. Biologist (agrochemistry, biochemistry, ageing), historian, dissident, author of some 20 books, among them The Legacy of Tchernobyl (1992). His father died in 1941 in a Far Eastern Camp. The book circulated as a typewritten samizdat, leading to his dismissal from the job and internment in a psychiatric hospital in 1970;he was released in 1971 following pressure by Russian and foreign scientists and intellectuals. While in London he was stripped of his soviet citizenship and his passport was confiscated. Medvedev worked at the London National Institute of Medical Research until he retired in 1991. The book was reviewed by Eugene Rabinowitch in may 1972 in the Bull. of the Atomic Scientists (see Google). Zhores twin brother Roy is a historian and writer.

JORAVSKY, David. 1970, 2003. THE LYSENKO AFFAIR. Cambridge. Harvard University Press.

JORAVSKY, David. 1986. THE LYSENKO AFFAIR. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Description. The Lysenko affair was perhaps the most bizarre chapter in the history of modern science. For thirty years, until 1965, Soviet genetics was dominated by a fanatical agronomist who achieved dictatorial power over genetics and plant science as well as agronomy. "A standard source both for Soviet specialists and for sociologists of science."—American Journal of Sociology
"Joravsky has produced . . . the most detailed and authoritative treatment of Lysenko and his view on genetics."—New York Times Book Review

    Joravsky also wrote Soviet Marxism and Natural Science, 1917-1932. Pp. xiv+433 p..

 

SOYFER, Valery N.1994. LYSENKO AND THE TRAGEDY OF SOVIET SCIENCE. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press.. A Ph. D. in Molecular Geneticsin the URSS, Soyfer moved to the US in 1988.

From the publisher. Trofim Lysenko's campaign against genetics and biology during the era of Stalin and Khrushchev is one of the great tragedies of modern science. In the purges that Lysenko (1898-1976) instigated, even the greatest of Soviet scientists were not safe. Only in 1964, when Khrushchev fell from power and when massive crop failures revealed the emptiness of the peasant-scientist's theories, did Lysenko lose favor. Even now, his long shadow stretches over the countries of the former Soviet Union as they deal with the disastrous consequences of Lysenkoist policies on science, agriculture, medicine, and the environment. As a young student in the 1950s, Valery N. Soyfer saw Lysenko's power - and charismatic charm - at first hand. In the 1970s, when Soyfer found himself stripped of his scientific degrees and positions because he had supported physicist Andre Sakharov and joined the dissident movement in the USSR, he used his time to find out all he could about the man who had destroyed Soviet science. This is the fullest account yet of Lysenko's life and times. It draws on extensive interviews, archives long inaccessible to scholars, and Soyfer's own memories. The original Russian manuscript of this unique biography circulated as an underground samizdat book and was to the West for publication.

GRAHAM, Loren. 1998, WHAT HAVE WE LEARNED ABOUT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FROM THE RUSSIAN EXPERIENCE?, Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.

AUGUSTINE, Dolores L. 2007. RED PROMETHEUS: Engineering and Dictatorshipin East Germany, 1945-1980 (illustrated). Cambridge: The MIT Press. In Cold War-era East Germany, the German tradition of science-based technology merged with a socialist system that made technological progress central to its ideology. Technology became an important part of East German socialist identity—crucial to how Communists saw their system and how citizens saw their state.  Augustine examines the relationship between a dictatorial system and the scientific and engineering communities in East Germany from the end of the Second World War through the 1980s.

Drawing on newly opened archives and extensive interviews, Augustine looks at individual scientists' interactions with the East German system, examining the effectiveness of their resistance against the party's totalitarian impulses. She explains why many German scientists and engineers who were deported to the Soviet Union after World War II returned to East Germany rather than defecting to the capitalist West, traces scientists' attempts to hold on to some aspects of professional autonomy, and describes challenges to their professional identity on the factory floor. Augustine examines the quality of science and technology produced under Communist rule, looking at failed research projects and clashing cultures of innovation. She looks at technological myth-building in science fiction and propaganda. She explores individual career strategies, including the role played by gender in high-tech professions, and the ways that both enterprises and individuals responded to increasing state and party control of research during the 1980s. We cannot understand the economic choices made by East Germany, Augustine argues, unless we understand the cultural values reflected in the East German belief in technology as indispensable to progress and industrial development.

PRINGLE, Peter. 2008. THE MURDER OF NIKOLAI VAVILOV: The Story of Stalin's Persecution of One of the Great Scientists of the Twentieth Century. Simon & Schuster   ISBN-10: 0743264983

SCOTT-SMITH, Giles. 2002. THE POLITICS OF APOLITICAL CULTURE: The Congress for Cultural Freedom, the CIA and Post-war American Hegemony. London, Routledge.

Google overview: The Congress for Cultural Freedom (CCF) existed during the Cold-War and gathered prominent intellectuals to oppose the violence, oppression and threat to freedom posed by Soviet Communism. Adopting a Gramscian perspective, this work examines the links between politics and culture on the international level and provides an analysis and history of the CCF.  Review: Whitfield, Stephen J., J. Cold War Studies vol 5 (2), Spring 2003.. From “  When Secretary of State George C. Marshall announced the famous Marshall Plan at the Harvard University commencement in June 1947, he was one of several distinguished guests to receive honorary degrees that day, the others being Robert Oppenheimer, head of the wartime Manhattan Project that produced the first atomic bomb; the D day commander, Gen. Omar Bradley; and the poet T. S. Eliot. Although Eliot may have seemed out of place in that group, his presence, according to Giles Scott-Smith, actually symbolized the cultural dimension of America's postwar hegemony, just as the other honorees symbolized its economic, political, and military dimensions. Similarly, Scott-Smith, a postdoctoral researcher at the Roosevelt Study Center in the Netherlands, makes the case that the Congress for Cultural Freedom was nothing less than the cultural counterpart of the Marshall Plan and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). It was a mechanism by which Western intellectuals, in collaboration with the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), forged the transatlantic consensus through which American hegemony operated.(from O. Columbus review in J. American History 89 (4) 2003.\

STEPHENS, Martha. 2002. THE TREATMENT: The Story of Those Who Died in the Cincinnati Radiation Tests,  Durham, N.C., Duke University Press, ISBN 0-8223-2811-9 From Library Journal

From 1960 through 1971, more than 80 cancer patients were treated with partial or total body radiation at Cincinnati General Hospital as part of an experiment conducted on behalf of the U.S. Department of Defense. A number of the patients died a short time after the radiation exposure, which was administered in an attempt to simulate the possible effects of nuclear war on soldiers. While the experiments were kept relatively quiet until 1994, the project raised serious issues relating to informed consent, the appropriateness of the treatment, and the intent of the research. These concerns eventually led to extensive investigations, a congressional hearing, and a lengthy lawsuit. A novelist and former professor of English, Stephens (Children of the World) is active in many social causes and was a member of a junior faculty organization that first attempted to raise awareness of this project in the 1970s. Based on hospital records, interviews with the victims' families, government reports, and University of Cincinnati disclosures, the book provides a shocking example of why we must remain diligent in our review of medical research. Recommended for all collections. Tina Neville, Univ. of South Florida at St. Petersburg Lib. Copyright 2002 Cahners Business Information, Inc.

GOLISZEK, Andrew. 2003.  IN THE NAME OF SCIENCE: A History of Secret Programs, Medical Research, and Human Experimentation, St. Martin's Press  ISBN 0-312-30356-4   The author, a biology professor at North Carolina A & T State University states that people throughout history have used their fellow human beings for experimentation, most often in the name of military or financial domination The book is a compendium of damning evidence that implicates first and foremost our (American) own government, doctors corporations, and ultimately ourselves..Goliszek introduces readers to the terrifying but intriguing shadow worlds of chemical and biological engineering; CIA mind-control experiments; the American eugenics movement of the past and present; and ethnic weaponry tailored to the genetic specifications of the targeted race. A recurrent theme here is how often experimentation involves subjects who have not consented. The most unsettling chapter gives firsthand accounts by victims of Cold War CIA experiments on children: brainwashing and mind control using chemicals, radiation, hypnosis, electric shock, isolation and physical torture, all reportedly to create the perfect spy-assassin. In an era when "weapons of mass destruction" is the buzz word, this is a must read, a book that will keep you up at night wondering who the enemy really is. Copyright 2003 Reed Business Information, Inc.

WITTNER, Lawrence S. (1941- ) 2003. TOWARD NUCLEAR ABOLITION: a History of the World Nuclear Disarmament Movement, 1971 to the Present. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Historian, he wrote extensively on the peace movement and foreign policy.

ROLL-HANSEN, Nils. 2004. THE LYSENKO EFFECT: The Politics of Science. Humanity Books. ISBN-10: 1591022622

 

CONNELLY, John, GRÜTTNER, Michael (editors). 2005. UNIVERSITIES UNDER DICTATORSHIP. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press. Academic freedom is contested terrain, especially within modern societies where universities and their faculties face constant demands to conform to the imperatives of the state or those of other outside entities. Yet, as these essays about dictatorships and higher education reveal, the academy is surprisingly resilient. Even under the most repressive regimes, professors can sometimes preserve a precarious measure of autonomy by insisting on the maintenance of professional standards. That there may be lessons here for contemporary academics is this volume's obvious subtext, as coeditor John Connelly candidly admits.(from Am.Historical Rev. 111 (4) 2006. http://www.historycooperative.org/cgi-bin/justtop.cgi?act=justtop&url=http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/ahr/111.4/br_15.html

 

ECKART Wolfgang Uwe (ed.). 2006. MAN, MEDICINE, AND THE STATE: the human body as an object of government sponsored medical research in the 20th century. Franz Steiner Verlag. p. 263. From review by Richard Weikart http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=12770. The essays in this volume advance our knowledge about state-sponsored experimentation involving humans in the twentieth century. They were originally presented at a 2003 conference in Heidelberg that was part of a larger project on the history of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation, hereafter DFG), the major government agency for funding academic research in Germany. Many essays focus on the DFG's role in funding research involving human experimentation under the National Socialist regime. Essays on Nazi human experiments cover many fields including: nutritional physiology (mainly vitamins), methamphetamine experiments, aviation research, Otto Bickenbach's chemical warfare experiments, Dachau hypothermia experiments and Kurt Blome's cancer research and malaria research.

 

 

APARTHEID IN SOUTH AFRICA

SAUNDERS, Mark. 2002. COMPLICITIES: The Intellectual and Apartheid . 288 pp. Duke University Press.   

Product Description. Complicities explores the complicated—even contradictory—position of the intellectual who takes a stand against political policies and ideologies. Mark Sanders argues that intellectuals cannot avoid some degree of complicity in what they oppose and that responsibility can only be achieved with their acknowledgment of this complicity. He examines the role of South African intellectuals by looking at the work of a number of key figures—both supporters and opponents of apartheid.

Sanders gives detailed analyses of widely divergent thinkers: Afrikaner nationalist poet N. P. van Wyk Louw, Drum writer Bloke Modisane, Xhosa novelist A. C. Jordan, Afrikaner dissident Breyten Breytenbach, and Black Consciousness leader Steve Biko. Drawing on theorists including Derrida, Sartre, and Fanon, and paying particular attention to the linguistic intricacy of the literary and political texts considered, Sanders shows how complicity emerges as a predicament for intellectuals across the ideological and social spectrum. Through discussions of the colonial intellectuals Olive Schreiner and Sol T. Plaatje and of post-apartheid feminist critiques of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Complicities reveals how sexual difference joins with race to further complicate issues of collusion.

A few Reviews. "Philosophically informed and linguistically sophisticated, Complicities is an important contribution to the intellectual history of modern South Africa."--J.M. Coetzee

 [A]n accessible and very subtle reflection on the responsibility of the intellectual in the face of oppression... [A] stimulating and deeply rewarding read."--Paul Muldoon, Australian Journal of Politics and History

"[T]he richness of informed, detailed analysis on offer here deserves the close attention of anyone trying to understand the history of protest, collusion or submission by some of South Africa's most significant thinkers."--Dennis Walder, Journal of Southern African Studies "

 

 

USA UNETHICAL RESEARCH ON HUMANS

 

JONES, James H.

GILLMOR, D. 1987. I SWEAR BY APOLLO: Dr. Ewen Cameron and the CIA-Brainwashing Experiments. Montreal: Eden press, 188 pp. Don Gillmor's I Swear by Apollo is an early expose of the type of psychiatrist who is becoming all too common these days. Even before his experiments were funded by the CIA, Ewen Cameron was the epitome of the "New Psychiatry" which has replaced the "Old Psychiatry" with its emphasis upon psychoanalysis. He was arrogant, aggressive, impatient and uninterested in the inner feelings of patients except as a tool to manipulate them. He was fascinated with electronic gadgets. Not surprisingly, he became a leading advocate of the use of ECT (electroconvulsive treatment) and may have been the very person who sold it to the CIA (see Colin Ross, The CIA Doctors). As human guinea pigs, he used people who had been admitted to the Allan Memorial Institute, (over which he presided), in a state of distress, and who were in no position to protest against his exploitation of them. Seeking the amelioration of their suffering, they found that he had made them worse: over sixty per cent suffered permanent and significant memory loss. Cameron's interests dovetailed very neatly with those of the CIA, in that he was seeking an American method of "brainwashing", in his case to be used as therapy. Cameron thought that to cure someone of mental illness, one had to destroy their old personality entirely. It never occurred to him that the patient's own psyche might contain elements which could heal him, and that the therapist's role was to help bring these to the fore. In his quest for immediate results, he showed a shocking lack of concern for human life and for the suffering of his experimental subjects. He is the American counterpart of Josef Mengele.

 

MARKS, John D.  1991 THE SEARCH FOR THE "MANCHURIAN CANDIDATE": The CIA and Mind Control: The Secret History of the Behavioral Sciences. W.W. Norton Co. (Paperback) "The CIA exposé to end all CIA exposés." —New York A 'Manchurian Candidate' is an unwitting assassin brainwashed and programmed to kill. In this book, former State Department officer John Marks tells the explosive story of the CIA's highly secret program of experiments in mind control. His curiosity first aroused by information on a puzzling suicide. Marks worked from thousands of pages of newly released documents as well as interviews and behavioral science studies, producing a book that 'accomplished what two Senate committees could not' (Senator Edward Kennedy).

LEDERER, Susan 1995. SUBJECTED TO SCIENCE. Human experimentation in America before the Second World War Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press. From reviews: Review

"Lederer's writing is crisp and clear, her historical documentation is exhaustive, and her social commentary persuasive. This book is an important addition to the growing literature on the history of human experimentation and medical research."--'New England Journal of Medicine'

"Essential reading for anyone concerned with clinical research public policy and attitudes." -- Norman M. Goldfarb, Journal of Clinical Research Best Practices

HORNBLUM, Allen. 1998, 1999. ACRES OF SKIN: Human Experiments at Holmesburg Prison: A True Story of Abuse and Exploitation in the Name of Medical Science. Routledge. Relying on prisoners' firsthand reports, Hornblum (urban studies, Temple Univ.) has written a thorough account of the questionable medical experimentation carried out in Philadelphia's Holmesburg Prison from the mid-1940s to 1974. Research on everything from cosmetics to chemical warfare agents was conducted there, often with minimal or no record keeping. Such research raises serious ethical issues. Throughout, Hornblum asks whether prisoners can give informed consent, particularly when the potential consequences of the research are not fully explained. Although most of the book centers on Holmesburg, Hornblum does cite other prisons across the country where similar practices took place before they received widespread condemnation in the 1970s. What is shocking about this is that it did not happen in the distant past but in our own generation, with the doctors involved still in practice. Frighteningly, Hornblum reveals that at the Nuremberg trials Nazi doctors cited American prison practices as a defense for their nefarious medical experiments in the camps. Essential for students of medical ethics.AEric D. Albright, Duke Medical Ctr. Lib., Durham, NC

JONES, James H. 1981. BAD BLOOD. The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment.  Free Press. Description.  From 1932 to 1972, the United States Public Health Service conducted a non-therapeutic experiment involving over 400 black male sharecroppers infected with syphilis. The Tuskegee Study had nothing to do with treatment. It purpose was to trace the spontaneous evolution of the disease in order to learn how syphilis affected black subjects. The men were not told they had syphilis; they were not warned about what the disease might do to them; and, with the exception of a smattering of medication during the first few months, they were not given health care. Instead of the powerful drugs they required, they were given aspirin for their aches and pains. Health officials systematically deceived the men into believing they were patients in a government study of "bad blood", a catch-all phrase black sharecroppers used to describe a host of illnesses. At the end of this 40 year deathwatch, more than 100 men had died from syphilis or related complications. "Bad Blood" provides compelling answers to the question of how such a tragedy could have been allowed to occur. Tracing the evolution of medical ethics and the nature of decision making in bureaucracies, Jones attempted to show that the Tuskegee Study was not, in fact, an aberration, but a logical outgrowth of race relations and medical practice in the United States. Now, in this revised edition of "Bad Blood", Jones traces the tragic consequences of the Tuskegee Study over the last decade. A new introduction explains why the Tuskegee Study has become a symbol of black oppression and a metaphor for medical neglect, inspiring a prize-winning play, a Nova special, and a motion picture. A new concluding chapter shows how the black community's wide-spread anger and distrust caused by the Tuskegee Study has hampered efforts by health officials to combat AIDS in the black community. "Bad Blood" was nominated for the Pulitzer Prize and was one of the "N.Y. Times" 12 best books of the year.

James T. Patterson Author of The Dread Disease: Cancer & Modern American Culture By eschewing sensationalism, Jones offers a compelling narrative that enhances our understanding of race relations in the twentieth-century South, of professionalism in medicine, and of American liberalism. Bad Blood deserves to win a prize. -- Review

MORENO, Jonathan D. 1999, 2001 UNDUE RISK: Secret State Experiments on Humans. W H Freeman, Routledge. Description. Undue Risk reviews the history of the use of human subjects in atomic, biological and chemical warfare experiments by the U.S. government from World War II to the present. A senior researcher on the president's special commission, Moreno discloses details of experiments that involved exposure of soldiers to atomic blast fallout, administration of LSD and mescaline. plutonium injections to unwilling hospital patients, and the attempted recruitment of Nazi medical scientists by the U.S. government after World War II.

 

WANG, Jessica. 1999. AMERICAN SCIENCE IN AN AGE OF ANXIETY: Scientists, Anticommunism and the Cold War. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. Amazon.com description. No professional group in the United States benefited more from World War II than the scientific community. After the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, scientists enjoyed unprecedented public visibility and political influence as a new elite whose expertise now seemed critical to America's future. But as the United States grew committed to Cold War conflict with the Soviet Union and the ideology of anticommunism came to dominate American politics, scientists faced an increasingly vigorous regimen of security and loyalty clearances as well as the threat of intrusive investigations by the notorious House Committee on Un-American Activities and other government bodies.

This book is the first major study of American scientists' encounters with Cold War anticommunism in the decade after World War II. By examining cases of individual scientists subjected to loyalty and security investigations, the organizational response of the scientific community to political attacks, and the relationships between Cold War ideology and postwar science policy, Jessica Wang demonstrates the stifling effects of anticommunist ideology on the politics of science. She exposes the deep divisions over the Cold War within the scientific community and provides a complex story of hard choices, a community in crisis, and roads not taken.  Review by Gregg Herken, http://www.fas.harvard.edu/~hpcws/Vol5Jessica%20Wang.doc  Also review in Am Hist. Rev 106 (1) 2001.

REVERBY, Susan M. (Ed.)  2000. TUSKEGEE´S TRUTHS: Rethinking the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. 656 pp.  The University of North Carolina Press. From The New England Journal of Medicine. Fragment of review.  The Tuskegee Study was an experiment conducted by the U.S. Public Health Service from 1932 to 1972. Researchers observed the effects of advanced syphilis on 399 poor black sharecroppers from Macon County, Alabama, who were followed clinically but not treated, even after the introduction of penicillin therapy in 1943. The book's editor, a professor of women's studies at Wellesley College, argues that the Tuskegee Study stands out amid a shameful history of unethical medical research. Like many other examples of unethical research, the study reveals how government officials deceive, how methods to protect human subjects fail, how research exploits human beings, how economically and socially disadvantaged groups are taken advantage of, and how human rights are violated and the violations sustained….. While retaining this central focus, the book investigates the problem of racism in medical research at multiple levels. With articles and documents spanning more than 600 pages, the book brings together an impressive array of physicians, historians of medicine and science, sociologists, government officials, attorneys, bioethicists, poets, and others. Scholarly essays explore class, sex, and sexuality. Historical records document interviews, correspondence, and testimony by researchers, subjects, and government officials …How well does the book achieve its goal of teaching "Tuskegee's truths" and revealing their relevance today? The truths are presented all the more forcefully because they emerge from distinct perspectives: history, medicine, bioethics, law, and literature. The retelling of the Tuskegee story gains credibility because the book incorporates so much firsthand testimony. The editor wisely invites the reader to struggle with and discover the lessons of the Tuskegee Study. The book succeeds admirably. Its comprehensive scope makes it an invaluable reference tool. Its sharp focus on race will attract the attention of scholars of race as well as historians and ethicists concerned with racism in medicine and medical research.  Nancy Jecker, Ph.D. Copyright © 2000 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved. The New England Journal of Medicine is a registered trademark of the MMS.

WASHINGTON, Harriet A. 2008. MEDICAL APARTHEID.The Dark History of Medical Experimentation on Black Americans from Colonial Times to the Present Reprint of old edition [Paperback].l Anchor, 528 pp. From Publishers Weekly

Review. This groundbreaking study documents that the infamous Tuskegee experiments, in which black syphilitic men were studied but not treated, was simply the most publicized in a long, and continuing, history of the American medical establishment using African-Americans as unwitting or unwilling human guinea pigs. Washington, a journalist and bioethicist who has worked at Harvard Medical School and Tuskegee University, has accumulated a wealth of documentation, beginning with Thomas Jefferson exposing hundreds of slaves to an untried smallpox vaccine before using it on whites, to the 1990s, when the New York State Psychiatric Institute and Columbia University ran drug experiments on African-American and black Dominican boys to determine a genetic predisposition for "disruptive behavior." Washington is a great storyteller, and in addition to giving us an abundance of information on "scientific racism," the book, even at its most distressing, is compulsively readable. It covers a wide range of topics—the history of hospitals not charging black patients so that, after death, their bodies could be used for anatomy classes; the exhaustive research done on black prisoners throughout the 20th century—and paints a powerful and disturbing portrait of medicine, race, sex and the abuse of power.  Copyright © Reed Business Information, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

WELSOME, Eileen. 1999, 2000. THE PLUTONIUM FILES: America's Secret Medical Experiments in the Cold War. Dell Publishing (Random House), 1999. From Publishers Weekly. Welsome takes the lid off the thousands of secret, government-sponsored radiation experiments performed on unsuspecting human "guinea pigs" at U.S. hospitals, universities and military bases during the Cold War. This report expands on Welsome's Pulitzer Prize-winning 1994 articles in the Albuquerque Tribune, which told how 18 men, women and children scattered in hospital wards across the country were injected with plutonium by U.S. Army and Manhattan Project doctors between 1945 and 1947. As Welsome demonstrates, the scope of the government's radiation experimentation program went much further. She documents how, between 1951 and 1962, the army, navy and air force used military troops in flights through radioactive clouds, "flashblindness" studies and tests to measure radio-isotopes in their body fluids. Additionally, she reveals that cancer patients were subjected to total-body irradiation, and women, children, the poor, minorities, prisoners and the mentally disabled were targeted for radio-isotope "tracer" studies, frequently without their consent and in some cases suffering excruciating side effects and premature deaths. In 1993, Energy Secretary Hazel O'Leary launched a campaign to make public all documents relating to the experiments, which had been kept secret. Welsome cogently argues that O'Leary's efforts resulted in a Republican vendetta that led to her ouster. Written with commendable restraint, this engrossing narrative draws liberally on declassified memos, briefings, phone calls, interviews and medical records to convey the enormity of the irradiation program and the bad science behind the flawed and dangerous testsAand to document the government's systematic cover-up. Anyone who cares about America's history, moral health and future should read this book. 8-city author tour. (Sept.)  Copyright 1999 Reed Business Information, Inc.

WASHINGTON, Harriet A. 2008. MEDICAL APARTHEID: The Dark History of Medical Experimentation on Black Americans from Colonial Times to the Present. Random House. pp. 60–63. ISBN 9780767915472

This study documents that the infamous Tuskegee experiments, in which black syphilitic men were studied but not treated, was simply the most publicized in a long, and continuing, history of the American medical establishment using African-Americans as unwitting or unwilling human guinea pigs. Washington, a journalist and bioethicist who has worked at Harvard Medical School and Tuskegee University, has accumulated a wealth of documentation, beginning with Thomas Jefferson exposing hundreds of slaves to an untried smallpox vaccine before using it on whites, to the 1990s, when the New York State Psychiatric Institute and Columbia University ran drug experiments on African-American and black Dominican boys to determine a genetic predisposition for "disruptive behavior." In addition to giving us an abundance of information on "scientific racism," the book, even at its most distressing, is compulsively readable. It covers a wide range of topics—the history of hospitals not charging black patients so that, after death, their bodies could be used for anatomy classes; the exhaustive research done on black prisoners throughout the 20th century—and paints a powerful and disturbing portrait of medicine, race, sex and the abuse of power. (Dec. 26) Copyright © Reed Business Information, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

 http://books.google.com.br/books?id=s5qIj_h_PtkC&pg=PA174&lpg=PA174&dq=klaus+barbieand+CIC&source=bl&ots=zcvv4g2ywi&sig=1p4r9kPLHk21p64D60LdTkkrpRg&hl=pt-BR&ei=PMUdTYCvPIT6lwfei8GMDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAjgK#v=onepage&q&f=false

Alexander Cockburn and Jeffrey St Clair. 1988. WHITE OUT – THE CIA, DRUGS AND THE PRESS. VERSO. Two importamt chapers  6.  Paperclip – Nazi Science Heads West and 7- Klaus Barbie and the Cocaine Coup


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